What is the process whereby rocks, minerals, and soil are broken down into smaller and smaller pieces due to interaction with the atmosphere?
Frost-wedging is an example of
What are the two main components of soil?
humus and sand
humus and weathered rock
weathered rock particles and water
List and explain the five main factors of soil formation.
Soils that are dominated by clay are called
Soils that are dominated by sand are called
Wind erosion is most common in
A crop planted on a field to reduce erosion during the off-season is called a
Mudflows associated specifically with earthquake activity are called lahars.
Which of the following can be a landslide warning sign?
soil moving away from foundations
the presence of saturated ground that is not usually wet
both of the above
Describe the differences between youthful, mature, and old rivers.
Which of the following best describes a watershed?
area of land where rivers are very common
area of land where water runs downhill into a given body of water
area of land where evaporation is limited and surface water is common
Areas of high vulnerability to stream erosion are
polar areas with seasonal rainfall
mountainous regions with high rainfall
flat areas with high rainfall
Headward erosion results in a
lengthening of a river upslope
deepening of a river downslope
deepening of a river
Why are floods especially common in the spring?
More water is added to a river as groundwater seeps upward.
Winds are more common, causing more movement of water.
The still-frozen ground is unable to soak up the water from melting snow.
Which of the following can cause storm surge in a coastal environment?
High winds pushing against the ocean’s surface are responsible for
What is the difference between a confined and an unconfined aquifer?
A chemical in groundwater that can cause birth defects is called a
Describe how and under what conditions glaciers form.
A glacier ends at the
The place where a glacier originates is called the
Explain how karst landscapes evolve over time.
The cave feature that forms when a stalactite and a stalagmite meet is called a
Most coastal erosion is caused by
The size of a wave depends on its fetch, which is the distance the wave has traveled.
Which of the following is made of sand that has been deposited by wave action?
Eolian landscapes are most common in
temperate rain forest areas
Water slows down wind erosion, because water tends to hold loose particles together, increasing cohesion.
The worldwide leading source of electrical power is
Describe the differences and similarities in how coal, oil, and natural gas formed.
Describe what an oil sand is and explain the advantages and disadvantages associated with its use and extraction.
Fossil fuel combustion can alter Earth’s carbon cycle by removing carbon from the atmosphere.
Of the two nuclear processes, fusion and fission, which one is used to generate commercial nuclear power? Why is the other one not used?
How does the use of fuel in a nuclear power plant compare to the use of fuel in a fossil fuel power plant?
In a nuclear power plant, the fuel is not burned.
In a nuclear power plant, the fuel is burned more slowly so that fewer pollutants are released.
In a nuclear power plant, the fuel is not mined from the ground, but is produced by chemical reactions.
Relying on windows and building materials to capture incoming solar radiation WITHOUT distributing that energy is called
passive solar heating
active solar heating
Wind power is most practical when wind speeds are over 55 mph.
Mountaintop removal is the most environmentally friendly type of mining.
An ore is a rock that
contains enough of a mineral resource to be economically profitable
contains any amount of a mineral resource
contains no waste materials but is made entirely of a pure mineral substance
Newton’s work on gravity supported the heliocentric view of the universe.
Stars are luminous balls of _______.
According to the big bang theory, the universe was once very __________ and is now __________.
cold; cooling down even more
hot; contracting in size
What is the most widely accepted model of how the solar system formed? Explain how the solar system formed under this model.
Our solar system resides in the
outside of a galaxy
center of a galaxy
outer spiral arms of a galaxy
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