semester 2 exam earth science

Current Situation Analysis
April 9, 2021
short answer question 14
April 9, 2021

What is the process whereby rocks, minerals, and soil are broken down into smaller and smaller pieces due to interaction with the atmosphere?

erosion

sedimentation

weathering

2 points

QUESTION 2

Frost-wedging is an example of

chemical weathering

physical weathering

biological weathering

2 points

QUESTION 3

What are the two main components of soil?

humus and sand

humus and weathered rock

weathered rock particles and water

2 points

QUESTION 4

List and explain the five main factors of soil formation.

Path: pWords:0

3 points

QUESTION 5

Soils that are dominated by clay are called

fine-textured

medium-textured

coarse-textured

2 points

QUESTION 6

Soils that are dominated by sand are called

fine-textured

medium-textured

coarse-textured

2 points

QUESTION 7

Wind erosion is most common in

equatorial regions

polar zones

arid climates

2 points

QUESTION 8

A crop planted on a field to reduce erosion during the off-season is called a

conservation crop

buffer crop

cover crop

2 points

QUESTION 9

Mudflows associated specifically with earthquake activity are called lahars.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 10

Which of the following can be a landslide warning sign?

soil moving away from foundations

the presence of saturated ground that is not usually wet

both of the above

2 points

QUESTION 11

Describe the differences between youthful, mature, and old rivers.

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3 points

QUESTION 12

Which of the following best describes a watershed?

area of land where rivers are very common

area of land where water runs downhill into a given body of water

area of land where evaporation is limited and surface water is common

2 points

QUESTION 13

Areas of high vulnerability to stream erosion are

polar areas with seasonal rainfall

mountainous regions with high rainfall

flat areas with high rainfall

2 points

QUESTION 14

Headward erosion results in a

lengthening of a river upslope

deepening of a river downslope

deepening of a river

2 points

QUESTION 15

Why are floods especially common in the spring?

More water is added to a river as groundwater seeps upward.

Winds are more common, causing more movement of water.

The still-frozen ground is unable to soak up the water from melting snow.

2 points

QUESTION 16

Which of the following can cause storm surge in a coastal environment?

hurricanes

landslides

earthquakes

2 points

QUESTION 17

High winds pushing against the ocean’s surface are responsible for

riverine floods

storm surge

flash floods

2 points

QUESTION 18

What is the difference between a confined and an unconfined aquifer?

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3 points

QUESTION 19

A chemical in groundwater that can cause birth defects is called a

teratogen

VOC

carcinogen

2 points

QUESTION 20

Describe how and under what conditions glaciers form.

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3 points

QUESTION 21

A glacier ends at the

terminus

talus

till

2 points

QUESTION 22

The place where a glacier originates is called the

terminus

glacial head

headwaters

2 points

QUESTION 23

Explain how karst landscapes evolve over time.

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3 points

QUESTION 24

The cave feature that forms when a stalactite and a stalagmite meet is called a

nodule

column

soda straw

2 points

QUESTION 25

Most coastal erosion is caused by

wind

waves

biological activity

2 points

QUESTION 26

The size of a wave depends on its fetch, which is the distance the wave has traveled.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 27

Which of the following is made of sand that has been deposited by wave action?

sand spit

sea stack

sea arch

2 points

QUESTION 28

Eolian landscapes are most common in

temperate rain forest areas

deserts

equatorial regions

2 points

QUESTION 29

Water slows down wind erosion, because water tends to hold loose particles together, increasing cohesion.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 30

The worldwide leading source of electrical power is

coal

natural gas

oil

2 points

QUESTION 31

Describe the differences and similarities in how coal, oil, and natural gas formed.

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3 points

QUESTION 32

Describe what an oil sand is and explain the advantages and disadvantages associated with its use and extraction.

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3 points

QUESTION 33

Fossil fuel combustion can alter Earth’s carbon cycle by removing carbon from the atmosphere.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 34

Of the two nuclear processes, fusion and fission, which one is used to generate commercial nuclear power? Why is the other one not used?

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3 points

QUESTION 35

How does the use of fuel in a nuclear power plant compare to the use of fuel in a fossil fuel power plant?

In a nuclear power plant, the fuel is not burned.

In a nuclear power plant, the fuel is burned more slowly so that fewer pollutants are released.

In a nuclear power plant, the fuel is not mined from the ground, but is produced by chemical reactions.

2 points

QUESTION 36

Relying on windows and building materials to capture incoming solar radiation WITHOUT distributing that energy is called

photoelectric heating

passive solar heating

active solar heating

2 points

QUESTION 37

Wind power is most practical when wind speeds are over 55 mph.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 38

Mountaintop removal is the most environmentally friendly type of mining.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 39

An ore is a rock that

contains enough of a mineral resource to be economically profitable

contains any amount of a mineral resource

contains no waste materials but is made entirely of a pure mineral substance

2 points

QUESTION 40

Newton’s work on gravity supported the heliocentric view of the universe.

True

False

1 points

QUESTION 41

Stars are luminous balls of _______.

plasma

dust

dark matter

2 points

QUESTION 42

According to the big bang theory, the universe was once very __________ and is now __________.

cold; cooling down even more

dense; expanding

hot; contracting in size

2 points

QUESTION 43

What is the most widely accepted model of how the solar system formed? Explain how the solar system formed under this model.

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3 points

QUESTION 44

Our solar system resides in the

outside of a galaxy

center of a galaxy

outer spiral arms of a galaxy
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