Case Study: Cultural Awareness

Case Study: Cultural Awareness

Read Chapter 2 of your text and the following case study:

You are a second grade teacher. You have a student named Jia who is from China and has lived in America for only six months. Today, you will be teaching a lesson on the life cycle of a butterfly, which includes the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, and adult.

(Image retrieved from

She is very bright and social, but is really struggling with English. You want to ensure that your lesson plan is both culturally and linguistically responsive, so you begin brainstorming by considering various teaching practices that could support Jia’s culture and language.

  • Go to the section entitled “Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices” and “Linguistically Responsive Teaching Practices” and select two teaching practices that you would consider utilizing when developing your lesson plan on the life cycle of a butterfly.
  • Copy and paste the teaching strategies you selected within your response and then under each one, explain specifically how you will include the teaching practices within a lesson plan on the life cycle of a butterfly and how it would best support Jia.
  • Then reflect on this process by answering the following two questions:
    • Why do you think it is important for teachers to understand the cultural identities of their students?  Provide evidence from the text to support your opinion.
    • Cushner (2007) has explored ways in which to broaden the cultural understanding of teachers. He supports the idea of “lived intercultural experiences” (p. 9) and states that pre-service teachers would benefit from cross-cultural experiences which would better prepare them to work students that are different from themselves. Describe an intercultural experience that you have been a part of and reflect on what you learned. If you have not had an intercultural experience, describe what you could do to have such an experience. How will these experiences benefit you in the classroom to ensure both culturally and linguistically responsive practices?

      Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2006). Human diversity in education: An integrative approach. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.




      2.4 Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness in Schools

      Embracing multicultural education and supporting cultural pluralism in the classroom is all part of being culturally andlinguisticallyresponsive—recognizing the importance of and engaging others’ cultures and languages. The concept of a culturallyresponsive school encompasses how able each member of the school community is in interacting effectively with those from other cultures and what kind of school culture and climate are established by the staff as a whole. Consider how you might be culturallyresponsive in the following What Would You Do?

      What Would You Do?

      Suppose you entered the student cafeteria and heard two students from your fourth-grade class complaining about going to the afterschool program. They were ill tempered because the aide at the center demanded that they complete their homework before they play soccer. The boys blamed the strict activities on the fact that the staff member was Korean, and it seemed they had learned and accepted a bias about Koreans’ work ethic. The boys were linking academic expectations of the staff member with culturally biased criteria.

      Questions to Consider

      Click on each question for guidance.

      1. In your role as teacher, what would you say to the boys?

      2. How can this become an opportunity to learn about cultural diversity and increase the boys’ level of awareness about Korean culture rather than viewing the situation with prejudice?

      Illustration of a cityscape maze.iVOOK/iStock/Thinkstock

      Cultural proficiency journeys are complex, particularly when undertaken by an organization such as a school or district.

      SchoolwidePractices: Seeking Cultural Proficiency

      When a school achieves its full potential in being culturallyresponsive, it can be said that the school has achieved cultural proficiency. Indeed, Quezada, Lindsey, and Lindsey (2012) defined cultural proficiency as a process and described it as a journey that individuals and organizations take. It may also be perceived as a lens through which we can experience the world around us. Lindsey et al. (2014) noted that

      the journey of Cultural Proficiency involves recognizing the beliefs that create mindsets. Beliefs that relate to race, ethnicity, gender, social class, religion or sexual orientation block effectiveness in cross-cultural communications and problem solving. It usually takes an awakening experience to challenge uninformed, negative, cultural beliefs and their underlying assumptions. (p. 12)

      For an organization such as a school or district, the journey is a complex and multifaceted one that will take time and focused navigation. What do you envision the cultural proficiency journey looking like? Is it linear? Does it have detours, obstacles, barriers, or perhaps even dead ends? Why is the journey metaphor helpful?

      If you accept the journey metaphor, it can be visualized as a passage through a six-point continuum (see Figure 2.2). The first three stages emerge as a result of barriers to understanding and the inability or lack of adequacy to respond to other cultures. The focus is on viewing diversity as a problem or a challenge (Lindsey & Daly, 2012), whereas the last three stages develop as a result of focusing on our own practice as educators, as we examine our beliefs and actions and strive to reach equity. The six stages are described in the following paragraphs.

      Cultural destructiveness refers to the practice of not merely ignoring but intentionally negating or eliminating differences. Imagine a school with a “no hat policy” that does not allow any hats indoors during school hours. If the policy remains in effect even after students for whom head coverings are a religious requirement arrive in the community, an important aspect of those students’ culture is negated. If the school insists that no exceptions can be made, this rule leads to the denial of other people’s cultures in the school. Or think of teachers who insist that they are “not good at languages”; they cannot pronounce the names of their newly arrived immigrant children, so they just give “American” names to their students. No consideration is given to what erasing one’s name means for the child: Replacing the name given by the immediate cultural group (family or extended family) is like eliminating a dimension of that child’s identity.

      Figure 2.2: Stages of cultural proficiency

      James Banks (2012) described six stages of cultural proficiency. These stages may be nonlinear for some individuals.

      A figure showing the different stages of cultural proficiency, which include destructiveness, incapacity, blindness, precompetence, competence, and proficiency.

      Illustration by Steve Zmina

      Cultural incapacity refers topractices that recognize that cultural differences exist, but minimize and even trivialize them, or make them appear to be wrong and unacceptable. Within the context of education, imagine a school where some students are requesting to be allowed time for praying once or twice a day, but the policy in place claims that praying is a religious practice that must be separated from school and needs to be taken outside of the building and school hours. Or consider another, much more common scenario: giving weekly quizzes or end-of-unit tests that carry even more weight and prove to be rather stressful for all learners, but forbidding teachers from giving extended time to their English learners to finish the test. How frustrating is it when dictionaries are not made available to ELLs, even though processing information takes longer when completing a task in a new language? Another example of cultural incapacity is when teachers design tests with references to American culture that ELLs may not understand. For instance, a math test contains word problems about types of transportation more commonly found in the United States (such as subway systems or elevated trains); students are not able to do well on this type of test, not because they do not understand the math or other concepts, but because they do not understand the references to American culture. Thesepractices ultimately disempower the students who see themselves as the ones in the wrong.

      Cultural blindness can best be understood as a choice: pretending not to see or acknowledge other cultures—especially marginalized groups—and ignoring what lived experiences and complex realities such groups have within the school or the larger community. Note that this text intentionally uses the term equity rather than equality. When teachers refer to equality, they are most likely speaking about opportunities that grant students equal status, rights, or experiences within the school. On the other hand, the term equity relates to treating students fairly in schools. Consider Figure 2.3. In the left panel of the illustration, the children are each being offered a step to better see the horse. However, the smallest child still cannot see the horse. The step solution does not take into account the difference in height: Though the children are given equal access to the same step, their individual results are not equitable. Compare this to the right panel of the illustration, in which different-sized steps are specifically chosen so that each child can have an equitable view of the horse.

      Figure 2.3: Equality vs. equity

      Equality and equity are not the same, and distinguishing issues of equality versus equity requires thoughtful consideration from educators.

      Two side-by-side illustrations with three youths, one tall, one average height, and one short, trying to view a horse behind a fence. In the first illustration, all three youths are standing on a crate but only two are able to see over the fence. In the second illustration, the tall youth is standing on the ground, the average-height youth is standing on one crate, and the short youth is standing on two stacked crates so that all three youths now have access to the same view.

      Illustration by Steve Zmina

      When the words equity and equality are confused, it often coincides with cultural blindness. Educators might claim that they treat everyone equally in the name of accepting diversity, when in fact equitable treatment is what is needed. Imagine the teacher who proudly claims she sees no color: The students she teaches could be of any race or ethnicity; it does not matter to her. In this example, the teacher is demonstrating equality in her viewpoint, but not equity in her actions. Although they might be perceived as well intentioned, educators who embrace this approach of declaring cultural blindness dismiss the cultural differences that do exist and often define the child’s identity.

      Cultural precompetence signifies a critical stop on this journey to cultural competence where individuals and educational organizations recognize that differences among cultures do exist and make a sincere effort to respond to such differences, but do so inadequately. There is increasing shared awareness that there is so much more to learn about the marginalized groups in the school community and how to best interact with them and include them. There is also an emerging desire to get to know those who are different, so schools might create cultural fairs or multicultural days and celebrations, in which families are invited to bring a traditional meal, share some cultural artifacts, or wear traditional outfits. The teachers who replaced the child’s hard-to-pronounce name at an earlier stage would now ask the child to say the name slowly and explain what the name means in the native language.

      Cultural competence indicates that the individuals and school community see and understand the cultural differences that exist and are able and willing to continuously expand their understanding of all cultures. Both personal values and behaviors and the school’s policies andpractices become inclusive of the cultures that may be new to the community or different from the majority in the school. Consider the school that opens its doors to the community and allows a local organization to establish a Saturday program to teach the native language and culture of the children. “By being culturally competent, schools reinforce students’ identities and create a sense of academic and physical safety for students and their families” (Tung et al., 2011, p. 9).

      Cultural proficiency indicates not just a heightened awareness of diversity andresponsive actions to the many cultures in the community, but also a commitment to advocacy and lifelong learning about equity. Schools that have arrived at the cultural proficiency level have a strong vision about their purpose: to create a socially just society through education. They will clearly articulate this vision and enact it in their daily practice.

      Instructional and AssessmentPractices: Engaging Students

      People in a circle wearing coordinating shirts looking up and smiling.Nisian Hughes/Stone/Getty Images

      All students are engaged in the lesson with culturally andlinguisticallyresponsive instructional strategies fostered by effective planning.

      A complete instructional cycle consists of preparing a lesson plan, delivering instruction, assessing whether the students have met the learning targets (i.e., grasped the purpose of the lesson), and then reflecting on the process and outcomes of thisteaching–learning cycle. The challenge that teachers of English learners face is to ensure that the entire instructional cycle reflects culturally andlinguisticallyresponsivepractices. During lesson preparation, keep in mind that it is the students you areteaching and not just the content and language. In Chapter 8, you will learn more about how to plan instruction with learner diversity and needs in mind. In Chapters 8 and 9, you will learn to apply culturally andlinguisticallyresponsive instructional strategies as well as to develop an understanding of formative and summative assessmentpractices that are aligned to current research and the needs of ELLs. This chapter, however, offers—as a preview—a brief overview of key ideas to keep in mind for planning, lesson delivery, and assessment. These ideas can be organized into two main categories (Giouroukakis & Honigsfeld, 2010): culturallyresponsiveteachingpractices andlinguisticallyresponsiveteachingpractices.

      CulturallyResponsiveTeaching (CRT)Practices

      As schools strive to achieve cultural proficiency, they are often noted as being proactive, and teachers in those schools are admired for demonstrating culturallyresponsiveteaching (CRT) (Gay, 2010). Culturallyresponsiveteaching (CRT)refers to a pedagogy that engages and responds to all learners and respects their individual cultures and backgrounds while offering equitable access to education. Teachers who engage in culturallyresponsiveteachingpractices

        • Incorporate instructional materials (literature, readings, and so on) that are relevant to students’ diverse cultural backgrounds.
        • Recognize that when students see their own cultures reflected in the instructional resources, students’ cultural identities are validated. They may become more interested in developing essential literacy skills and making meaningful and memorable connections to learning rigorous content and acquiring challenging, new skills.
        • Use supplementary instructional materials that directly relate to ELLs’ out-of-school, lived experiences.
        • Give ELLs opportunities to create performance-based products (e.g., oral reports, games, storyboards, or artwork) based on their readings in order to deepen their understanding of the content and to promote their oral language development at the same time (Thompson, 2010).
        • Use creative, multi-model ways to teach literature, such as acting out critical scenes, showing excerpts from a movie adaptation of a classic piece of literature, or listening to an interview with a celebrity in order to promote reading comprehension and student engagement.
        • Use pop culture, such as rap songs, and other culturally appropriate texts that pique the interest of ELLs and help them make connections to other fiction and nonfiction genres that are frequently featured in the school context as well as on standardized tests.
        • Differentiate instruction for ELLs who may differ from each other as well as from their native-English-speaking peers in terms of learning styles, academic strengths, literacy levels, prior educational experiences, and so forth.


      Working in tandem with culturallyresponsiveteachingpractices,linguisticallyresponsiveteachingpractices foster opportunities for students to use their multiple languages effectively and to learn to communicate in a variety of contexts. Teachers who engage inlinguisticallyresponsivepractices

        • Break down instructional tasks for ELLs to make learning manageable. ELLs need step-by-step instruction that makes complex tasks accessible and builds on their prior knowledge, both culturally andlinguistically.
        • Provide more wait time for content-based and literacy activities during class for processing new content and constructing meaning using their new language.
        • Offer regular, structured opportunities for peer interactions so ELLs can make sense of target content with the support of their classmates as they practice new language skills in the classroom.
        • Introduce strategies that support students as they become school-smart (and test-smart) by incorporating key academic vocabulary and language structures frequently featured in assignments as well as on standardized tests (Allen, 2002).
        • Use the necessary linguistic adaptations and modifications that ELLs with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are entitled to.
        • Explicitly teach resourcing skills such as using a thesaurus or dictionary and note-taking skills to connect reading and listening to writing.
        • Maintain realistic expectations for ELLs.
        • Use rehearsal strategies, such as creating opportunities for students to practice their answers orally before putting them in writing or to jot down key words before they formulate a more comprehensive, academic oral response to a question.
      • Respect and accept students’ native language use in the classroom on an as-needed basis, recognizing it as a tool or bridge to learning English.




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Identify and explain three online data sources that would support the assessment of an online program?

Revisit the images you and your colleagues found to represent the curriculum development process (remember this was the Unit 2 Discussion). In almost every image, there was a process of evaluation and improvement of the program through the collection of data. Data is collected through a variety of sources. Referencing your Reading and other sources, identify and explain three different methods you will use to collect data in order to improve your program. Remember to have a variety of sources in order to get the most accurate information. Think outside the box here. You do not just want to use student grades or test scores to assess the program. What other things might give a picture of how the program is running?

Once you have identified the methods, write a descriptive paragraph explaining the process you will use.

Read your classmates’ posts, select one, open a conversation with your selected peer to develop answers to the following questions and post them to your Discussion:

  1. Explain the differences within the data collection processes for assessing a program that is campus based as compared to an online program.
  2. Identify and explain three online data sources that would support the assessment of an online program?
  3. How would you improve an entire online program based upon the data collected?

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Collecting and Analyzing Data for Data-based Individualization

Iris Module Online Assignment


Collecting and Analyzing Data for Data-based Individualization

This assignment will further develop your understanding of data driven instruction.

1. Go to:

2. Complete the module on collecting and analyzing data for data-based instruction.

3. Respond to questions 1-3 in the assessment section of the module.

4. Submit these questions as a dropbox assignment (Iris).


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Running Head: PHILOSOPHY

Khanal 1

Maunata Khanal


Mark Arandia

March 21st 2019

1 How and How Not to Love Mankind

2 1) What is the author’s main argument?

The main argument in the essay, How and how not to love mankind is about how alike, yet how different Ivan Turgenev and Karl Marx are (Dalrymple 83-89). They were both brought into the world that year in 1818, and they both passed away that year in 1883, and they were both European authors too. They examined similar things, went to a similar college, and expounded on similar subjects despite the fact that they both had diverse identities and unmistakable convictions likewise extraordinary perspectives on their general surroundings, particularly in people. Their perspectives are somehow different. 3 While Turgenev saw a man, Marx saw classes of man, and while Turgenev saw persons, Marx saw the persons.

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While Turgenev saw a man, Marx saw classes of man, and while Turgenev saw persons, Marx saw the persons

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Whereas Turgenev saw men Marx saw the classes of men, and where Turgenev saw people Marx saw the people

They both were alike yet different in so many different ways. The creator contends their disparities regardless of how similar they are. 4 Also while portraying the story “mumu”

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Also while portraying the story “mumu”

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The story “Mumu”

it demonstrates how a human Turgenev is contrasted with Marx, which is simply the principle contention in the story (Fiske 10). The creator contends how Turgenev has to a greater extent a delicate, warm and adoring kind of heart; he is enthusiastic and more human than Marx. Marx is not as human; neither does he care to show he’s feeling or his love and compassion. Or either he does not have any.

5 Written by Dalrymple Theodore, the article “How and How not to love mankind” is an inspirational piece of work which attempt to describe the welfare and humanity to human beings.

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Written by Dalrymple Theodore, the article “How and How not to love mankind” is an inspirational piece of work which attempt to describe the welfare and humanity to human beings

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An article “How and How not to love mankind” is written by Theodore Dalrymple

6 The article explains the way two individuals born in the same period, lived similar lives, with the same careers, and majorly have everything parallel may be different from each other with behaviors and thoughts.

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The article explains the way two individuals born in the same period, lived similar lives, with the same careers, and majorly have everything parallel may be different from each other with behaviors and thoughts

Source – Another student’s paper

The article shows how two people born in the same era, with same careers, lived similar lives, and mostly have everything parallel can be completely different from one another with thought and behavior

The article is about Karl Marx and Ivan Turgenev, two popular writers of the 19th C and the way they see humanity and mankind in diverse ways (Fiske 15). Ivan Turgenev appears to love human beings and treat them with a lot of dignity and respect. 7 The writer demonstrates his love for the welfare of mankind and humanity.  Karl Marx seems to have more interests in the systems of people than in mankind but claims to love people. The writer also compares two popular philosophers, Karl Marx, and Ivan Turgenev with the “Communist Manifesto” by Karl Marx and the famous thinker, “Mumu” published by the Turgenev in contrasting the philosophies of the philosophers toward the humanity and mankind.

2 2) How does he support his main argument (evidence, ancillary arguments, etc.)?

6 Writer’s main argument in the article is, people claim to have the welfare to humanity by heart especially to the poor, but it is not always true (Dalrymple 83-89).  7 The welfare of humanity or poor is not up to everyone even they claim they do it.  There can be different ways to serve mankind, but the one that is done with the great heart is real welfare to humanity.  8 Just asserting that he/she is keen on individuals isn’t genuine welfare to humanity.  The essayists attempt to elucidate his point with the case of Turgenev and Karl Marx.

The creator underpins his primary contention by giving proof to the story and depicting how Turgenev is an individual who has emotions as a person does, while Marx does not demonstrate those inclination and affections. The author gives the evidence saying “Turgenev sees mankind as people, continually gifted with weaknesses, consciousness, character, moral strengths and feelings” quotes (Theodore 5) and he described Marx as “Marx sees human beings as snows in avalanches, as examples of universal powers.

7 In human society, people tend to have different definitions of good and bad (Dalrymple 83-89).

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In human society, people tend to have different definitions of good and bad (Dalrymple 83-89)

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In the human society, people tend to have different definitions of good and bad

9 People have diverse perspectives to various issues which would be quite difficult to come into agreement.

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People have diverse perspectives to various issues which would be quite difficult to come into agreement

7 Dalrymple in his article wrote that every person in the society claims they consider the welfare of humanity especially that of the poor.  Even when committing wrongful acts such as mass murder, the perpetrators shall argue that they also consider the welfare of humanity and their actions have all the interests of the people at heart.  However, the different forms of love expressed towards human’s raises different reactions among them because of the way they view life.  9 Dalrymple presents an argument on both sides;

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Dalrymple presents an argument on both sides

7 how to love mankind and how not to love mankind.

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how to love mankind and how not to love mankind

However, he does not say which side he supports or thinks is the best.  He leaves that to his readers.  9 Therefore, the paper shall be discussing the argument of Dalrymple in his essay, “How and How Not to Love Mankind.”

7 Turgenev always portrayed positivity, and many people attended his funeral while Marx who reflected the negativity in terms of societal oppression had very few people in his burial (Fiske, 20).  3Humans may have different perspectives, but they shall support those ideas that associate with them in terms of the benefits, happiness and hope that adds to their life.

2 3) Do you agree or disagree with him?  Why or why not?

I agree with the author because almost every intellectual argument has humanity welfare and specifically, the well-being of the less fortunate at heart. But because no mass murders occur without their offenders asserting that they are a stand-in for the mankind good, charitable sentiments can simply take a diversity of forms. Both philosophers were renowned for their compassion with the oppressed and downtrodden. But for all their resemblances of experiences and education, the compassion for the superiority of each man couldn’t have been more diverse: for a while ones, based on the misery of people, was real, others, general and intangible, were not.

Works Cited

Dalrymple, T. 10 “How-and How Not-to Love Mankind.”  9 CITY JOURNAL 11.3 (2001): 83-89.

9 Fiske, Susan T.  Envy up, scorn down:  How status divides us.  Russell Sage Foundation, 2011.


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