Documenting Progress Plan And Reflection

Documenting Progress Plan and Reflection

As mentors and coaches, you will support teachers and staff throughout their process of inquiry. It is important that you plan and are prepared when checking in with your protégés. Additionally, you will want to continually reflect on your own growth and development as mentors. This week’s assignment is an opportunity to begin your progress plan and reflection. After reading the chapter in the course text, create a document (that you can potentially use when you are supporting teachers as a mentor or coach) and reflect on your own journey as a mentor. Please note this is a work in progress that will be modified based on your personal development and growth, as well as the development of those you coach and/or mentor.

Part 1: Create your own Progress Plan document based on Table 5.7 that can be used for the current early childhood program you are working with or for a future program, making sure that you address all the elements for steps 1-4. Additionally, either embedded or at the top or bottom of the document, add a short checklist of questions that you find most relevant from Table 5.6 that you can use as reminders for yourself as you are checking in and documenting teacher’s progress.

Part 2: Reflect on Table 5.8 “Mentor Development Self-Reflection” and your experience in co-creating an Individualized PD Plan from Week 2. Circle the letter next to each statement that currently feelings about your mentoring relationship (using your experience with your volunteer) and skills.

Write a two page paper

  • explaining why you think certain areas are strengths
  • which areas you would like to grow in
  • briefly describes a plan for growing mentoring for your own professional development

The Documenting Progress Plan and Reflection (Parts 1 and 2)

  • Must be a minimum of three double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.).
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of Paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least one sources in addition to the course text.
    • The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for an assignment.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.“Table 5.7 Teacher–Mentor Professional Development Plan Documenting Progress Teachers and Mentors Comments 1. Implementing: Documenting Action Steps After They Occur (Example: Observed, documented, reviewed information, discussed choices, put into practice, offered feedback . . .) Observations: Review of documentation, information collected: Put into practice: 2. Status: What happened? Check-in date(s): Progress toward goals: Facilitation of learning: 3. Reflection Mentee reflects on observations, documentation, and actions chosen. Summary of mentor feedback: 4. Changes needed and next steps: What was accomplished? What has changed? What still needs to occur? What needs to change? Next steps: Evidence of making progress or meeting goals: What should change about the mentoring process? Next steps: Do you have any new insights into what short-term goals and program conditions are necessary to produce longer term outcomes? What resources are needed to begin the activities that you identified and to maintain the program supports necessary for the activities to be effective?”

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Humanism And The Roles Of Identity & Culture In Learning

Guiding Questions

  • What is culture and what is its role in teaching and learning?
  • How could a teacher’s identity and/or culture impact teaching and learning? 
  • How could a student’s identity and/or culture impact teaching and learning? 
  • What are culturally responsive pedagogy and culturally responsive teaching?
  • What is the difference between equity and equality?
  • Why might teachers embrace or reject CRT and CRP?


Before attending to this week’s readings, think about the questions above. Much like you would do a K-W-L Chart with your students; determine what you KNOW about the topic and what you WANT to KNOW about the topic. Your R2R Post will indicate what you LEARNED about this week’s content. Refer to the R2R details and the success criteria outlined in the Syllabus.


  • Capacity Building Series: CRPPreview the document
  • Website: How to Practice CRP
  • Gay: Preparing for CRTPreview the document

Optional Readings

  • Spalding: Social Justice and Teacher Education…Preview the document

Ladson-Billings: Yes, But How Do We Do It?Preview the document


ost a Reflective Response (R2R)  

  • Approximately 500 words in length
  • Post should be substantive demonstrating knowledge of the readings
  • Should address the Guiding Questions for the week
  • See Syllabus for Success Criteria

    Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002


    Editor’s Note: This article draws from Geneva Gay’s recent book, Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice, which received the 2001 Outstanding Writing Award from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.


    Geneva Gay University of Washington, Seattle

    In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education pro- grams with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this. The ideas presented here are brief sketches of more thorough explanations included in my recent book, Culturally Respon- sive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice (2000). The specific components of this approach to teaching are based on research findings, theo- retical claims, practical experiences, and per- sonal stories of educators researching and work- ing with underachieving African, Asian, Latino, and Native American students. These data were produced by individuals from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds including anthropol- ogy, sociology, psychology, sociolinguistics, com- munications, multicultural education, K-college classroom teaching, and teacher education. Five essential elements of culturally responsive teach- ing are examined: developing a knowledge base about cultural diversity, including ethnic and cultural diversity content in the curriculum, dem- onstrating caring and building learning com- munities, communicating with ethnically diverse students, and responding to ethnic diversity in the delivery of instruction. Culturally responsive teaching is defined as using the cultural charac- teristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethni- cally diverse students as conduits for teaching

    them more effectively. It is based on the assump- tion that when academic knowledge and skills are situated within the lived experiences and frames of reference of students, they are more personally meaningful, have higher interest ap- peal, and are learned more easily and thoroughly (Gay, 2000). As a result, the academic achieve- ment of ethnically diverse students will improve when they are taught through their own cul- tural and experiential filters (Au & Kawakami, 1994; Foster, 1995; Gay, 2000; Hollins, 1996; Kleinfeld, 1975; Ladson-Billings, 1994, 1995).


    Educators generally agree that effective teach- ing requires mastery of content knowledge and pedagogical skills. As Howard (1999) so aptly stated, “We can’t teach what we don’t know.” This statement applies to knowledge both of student populations and subject matter. Yet, too many teachers are inadequately prepared to teach ethnically diverse students. Some professional programs still equivocate about including multi- cultural education despite the growing num- bers of and disproportionately poor performance of students of color. Other programs are trying to decide what is the most appropriate place and “face” for it. A few are embracing multicultural education enthusiastically. The equivocation is


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    inconsistent with preparing for culturally respon- sive teaching, which argues that explicit knowl- edge about cultural diversity is imperative to meetingtheeducationalneedsofethnicallydiverse students.

    Part of this knowledge includes understand- ing the cultural characteristics and contribu- tions of different ethnic groups (Hollins, King, & Hayman, 1994; King, Hollins, & Hayman, 1997; Pai, 1990; Smith, 1998). Culture encompasses many things, some of which are more important for teachers to know than others because they have direct implications for teaching and learn- ing. Among these are ethnic groups’ cultural values, traditions, communication, learning styles, contributions, and relational patterns. For exam- ple, teachers need to know (a) which ethnic groups give priority to communal living and cooperative problem solving and how these pref- erences affect educational motivation, aspira- tion, and task performance; (b) how different ethnic groups’ protocols of appropriate ways for children to interact with adults are exhibited in instructional settings; and (c) the implications of gender role socialization in different ethnic groups for implementing equity initiatives in classroom instruction. This information consti- tutes the first essential component of the knowl- edge base of culturally responsive teaching. Some of the cultural characteristics and contributions of ethnic groups that teachers need to know are explained in greater detail by Gold, Grant, and Rivlin (1977); Shade (1989); Takaki (1993); Banks and Banks (1995); and Spring (1995).

    The knowledge that teachers need to have about cultural diversity goes beyond mere aware- ness of, respect for, and general recognition of the fact that ethnic groups have different values or express similar values in various ways. Thus, the second requirement for developing a knowl- edge base for culturally responsive teaching is acquiring detailed factual information about the cultural particularities of specific ethnic groups (e.g., African, Asian, Latino, and Native Ameri- can). This is needed to make schooling more interesting and stimulating for, representative of, and responsive to ethnically diverse students. Too many teachers and teacher educators think that their subjects (particularly math and sci-

    ence) and cultural diversity are incompatible, or that combining them is too much of a concep- tual and substantive stretch for their subjects to maintain disciplinary integrity. This is simply not true. There is a place for cultural diversity in every subject taught in schools. Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching deals as much with using multicultural instructional strate- gies as with adding multicultural content to the curriculum. Misconceptions like these stem, in part, from the fact that many teachers do not know enough about the contributions that dif- ferent ethnic groups have made to their subject areas and are unfamiliar with multicultural edu- cation. They may be familiar with the achieve- ments of select, high-profile individuals from some ethnic groups in some areas, such as Afri- can American musicians in popular culture or politicians in city, state, and national govern- ment. Teachers may know little or nothing about the contributions of Native Americans and Asian Americans in the same arenas. Nor do they know enough about the less publicly visible but very significant contributions of ethnic groups in science, technology, medicine, math, theol- ogy, ecology, peace, law, and economics.

    Many teachers also are hard-pressed to have an informed conversation about leading multi- cultural education scholars and their major pre- mises, principles, and proposals. What they think they know about the field is often based on superficial or distorted information conveyed through popular culture, mass media, and crit- ics. Or their knowledge reflects cursory aca- demic introductions that provide insufficient depth of analysis of multicultural education. These inadequacies can be corrected by teach- ers’ acquiring more knowledge about the con- tributions of different ethnic groups to a wide variety of disciplines and a deeper understand- ing of multicultural education theory, research, and scholarship. This is a third important pillar of the knowledge foundation of culturally respon- sive teaching. Acquiring this knowledge is not as difficult as it might at first appear. Ethnic individuals and groups have been making wor- thy contributions to the full range of life and cul- ture in the United States and humankind from the very beginning. And there is no shortage of

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    quality information available about multicul- tural education. It just has to be located, learned, and woven into the preparation programs of teachers and classroom instruction. This can be accomplished, in part, by all prospective teach- ers taking courses on the contributions of ethnic groups to the content areas that they will teach and on multicultural education.


    In addition to acquiring a knowledge base about ethnic and cultural diversity, teachers need to learn how to convert it into culturally respon- sive curriculum designs and instructional strat- egies. Three kinds of curricula are routinely present in the classroom, each of which offers different opportunities for teaching cultural diversity. The first is formal plans for instruction approved by the policy and governing bodies of educational systems. They are usually anchored in and complemented by adopted textbooks and other curriculum guidelines such as the “standards” issued by national commissions, state departments of education, professional asso- ciations, and local school districts. Even though these curriculum documents have improved over time in their treatment of ethnic and cultural diversity, they are still not as good as they need to be (Wade, 1993). Culturally responsive teach- ers know how to determine the multicultural strengths and weaknesses of curriculum designs and instructional materials and make the changes necessary to improve their overall quality. These analyses should focus on the quantity, accuracy, complexity, placement, purpose, variety, signif- icance, and authenticity of the narrative texts, visual illustrations, learning activities, role mod- els, and authorial sources used in the instruc- tional materials. There are several recurrent trends in how formal school curricula deal with ethnic diversity that culturally responsive teachers need to correct. Among them are avoiding controver- sial issues such as racism, historical atrocities, powerlessness, and hegemony; focusing on the accomplishments of the same few high-profile individuals repeatedly and ignoring the actions of groups; giving proportionally more attention to African Americans than other groups of color;

    decontextualizing women, their issues, and their actions from their race and ethnicity; ignoring poverty; and emphasizing factual information while minimizing other kinds of knowledge (such as values, attitudes, feelings, experiences, and ethics). Culturally responsive teaching reverses these trends by dealing directly with contro- versy; studying a wide range of ethnic individu- als and groups; contextualizing issues within race, class, ethnicity, and gender; and including multiple kinds of knowledge and perspectives. It also recognizes that these broad-based analy- ses are necessary to do instructional justice to the complexity, vitality, and potentiality of eth- nic and cultural diversity. One specific way to begin this curriculum transformation process is to teach preservice (and inservice) teachers how to do deep cultural analyses of textbooks and other instructional materials, revise them for better representations of culturally diversity, and provide many opportunities to practice these skills under guided supervision. Teachers need to thoroughly understand existing obstacles to culturally responsive teaching before they can successfully remove them.

    Other instructional plans used frequently in schools are called the symbolic curriculum (Gay, 1995). They include images, symbols, icons, mot- toes, awards, celebrations, and other artifacts that are used to teach students knowledge, skills, morals, and values. The most common forms of symbolic curricula are bulletin board decora- tions; images of heroes and heroines; trade books; and publicly displayed statements of social eti- quette, rules and regulations, ethical principles, and tokens of achievement. Therefore, class- room and school walls are valuable “advertis- ing” space, and students learn important les- sons from what is displayed there. Over time, they come to expect certain images, value what is present, and devalue that which is absent. Culturally responsive teachers are critically con- scious of the power of the symbolic curriculum as an instrument of teaching and use it to help convey important information, values, and actions about ethnic and cultural diversity. They ensure that the images displayed in classrooms repre- sent a wide variety of age, gender, time, place, social class, and positional diversity within and

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    across ethnic groups and that they are accurate extensions of what is taught through the formal curriculum. For example, lessons of leadership, power, and authority taught through images should include males and females and expres- sive indicators of these accomplishments from many different ethnic groups.

    A third type of curriculum that is fundamen- tal to culturally responsive teaching is what Cortés (1991, 1995, 2000) has called the societal curriculum. This is the knowledge, ideas, and impressions about ethnic groups that are por- trayed in the mass media. Television programs, newspapers, magazines, and movies are much more than mere factual information or idle enter- tainment. They engage in ideological manage- ment (Spring, 1992) and construct knowledge (Cortés, 1995) because their content reflects and conveys particular cultural, social, ethnic, and political values, knowledge, and advocacies. For many students, mass media is the only source of knowledge about ethnic diversity; for others, what is seen on television is more influential and memorable than what is learned from books inclassrooms.Unfortunately,muchof this“knowl- edge” is inaccurate and frequently prejudicial. In a study of ethnic stereotyping in news report- ing, Campbell (1995) found that these programs perpetuate “myths about life outside of white ‘mainstream’ America . . . [that] contribute to an understanding of minority cultures as less sig- nificant, as marginal” (p. 132). Members of both minority and majority groups are negatively affected by these images and representations. Ethnic distortions in mass media are not limited to news programs; they are pervasive in other types of programming as well. The messages they transmit are too influential for teachers to ignore. Therefore, culturally responsive teach- ing includes thorough and critical analyses of how ethnic groups and experiences are pre- sented in mass media and popular culture. Teachers need to understand how media images of African, Asian, Latino, Native, and European Americans are manipulated; the effects they have on different ethnic groups; what formal school curricula and instruction can do to counteract their influences; and how to teach students to be discerning consumers of and resisters to ethnic

    information disseminated through the societal curriculum.


    A third critical component of preparation for culturally responsive teaching is creating class- room climates that are conducive to learning for ethnically diverse students. Pedagogical actions are as important as (if not more important than) multicultural curriculum designs in implement- ing culturally responsive teaching. They are not simply technical processes of applying any “best practices” to underachieving students of color, however. Much more is required. Teachers need to know how to use cultural scaffolding in teach- ing these students—that is, using their own cul- tures and experiences to expand their intellec- tual horizons and academic achievement. This begins by demonstrating culturally sensitive car- ing and building culturally responsive learning communities. Teachers have to care so much about ethnically diverse students and their achievement that they accept nothing less than high-level success from them and work dili- gently to accomplish it (Foster, 1997; Kleinfeld, 1974, 1975). This is a very different conception of caring than the often-cited notion of “gentle nurturing and altruistic concern,” which can lead to benign neglect under the guise of letting students of color make their own way and move at their own pace.

    Culturally responsive caring also places “teach- ers in an ethical, emotional, and academic part- nership with ethnically diverse students, a part- nership that is anchored in respect, honor, integ- rity, resource sharing, and a deep belief in the possibility of transcendence” (Gay, 2000, p. 52). Caring is a moral imperative, a social responsi- bility, and a pedagogical necessity. It requires that teachers use “knowledge and strategic think- ing to decide how to act in the best interests of others . . . [and] binds individuals to their soci- ety, to their communities, and to each other” (Webb, Wilson, Corbett, & Mordecai, 1993, pp. 33- 34). In culturally responsive teaching, the “knowl- edge” of interest is information about ethnically diverse groups; the “strategic thinking” is how this cultural knowledge is used to redesign teach-

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    ing and learning; and the “bounds” are the reci- procity involved in students working with each other and with teachers as partners to improve their achievement. Thus, teachers need to under- stand that culturally responsive caring is action oriented in that it demonstrates high expecta- tions and uses imaginative strategies to ensure academic success for ethnically diverse students. Teachers genuinely believe in the intellectual potential of these students and accept, unequiv- ocally, their responsibility to facilitate its real- ization without ignoring, demeaning, or neglect- ing their ethnic and cultural identities. They build toward academic success from a basis of cultural validation and strength.

    Building community among diverse learners is another essential element of culturally respon- sive teaching. Many students of color grow up in cultural environments where the welfare of the group takes precedence over the individual and where individuals are taught to pool their resources to solve problems. It is not that indi- viduals and their needs are neglected; they are addressed within the context of group function- ing. When the group succeeds or falters, so do its individual members. As a result, the group functions somewhat like a “mutual aid society” in which all members are responsible for help- ing each other perform and ensuring that every- one contributes to the collective task. The posi- tive benefits of communities of learners and cooperative efforts on student achievement have been validated by Escalanté and Dirmann (1990) in high school mathematics for Latinos; by Sheets (1995) in high school Spanish language and lit- erature with low-achieving Latinos; by Fullilove and Treisman (1990) in 1st-year college calculus with African, Latino, and Chinese Americans; and by Tharp and Gallimore (1988) in elemen- tary reading and language arts with Native Hawaiian children. These ethics and styles of working are quite different from the typical ones used in schools, which give priority to the individual and working independently. Cul- turally responsive teachers understand how con- flicts between different work styles may inter- fere with academic efforts and outcomes, and they understand how to design more commu- nal learning environments.

    The process of building culturally responsive communities of learning is important for teach- ers to know as well. The emphasis should be on holistic or integrated learning. Contrary to the tendency in conventional teaching to make dif- ferent types of learning (cognitive, physical, emo- tional) discrete, culturally responsive teaching deals with them in concert. Personal, moral, social, political, cultural, and academic knowl- edge and skills are taught simultaneously. For example, students are taught their cultural heri- tages and positive ethnic identity development along with math, science, reading, critical think- ing, and social activism. They also are taught about the heritages, cultures, and contributions of other ethnic groups as they are learning their own. Culturally responsive teachers help stu- dents to understand that knowledge has moral and political elements and consequences, which obligate them to take social action to promote freedom, equality, and justice for everyone. The positive effects of teaching these knowledges and skills simultaneously for African, Asian, Latino, and Native American students are docu- mented by Ladson-Billings (1994); Foster (1995); Krater, Zeni, & Cason, (1994); Tharp & Gallimore (1988); Escalanté and Dirmann (1990); and Sheets (1995).


    Effective cross-cultural communication is a fourth pivotal element of preparing for cultur- ally responsive teaching. Porter and Samovar (1991) explained that culture influences “what we talk about; how we talk about it; what we see, attend to, or ignore; how we think; and what we think about” (p. 21). Montagu and Watson (1979) added that communication is the “ground of meeting and the foundation of community” (p. vii) among human beings. Without this “meet- ing” and “community” in the classroom, learn- ing is difficult to accomplish for some students. In fact, determining what ethnically diverse stu- dents know and can do, as well as what they are capable of knowing and doing, is often a func- tion of how well teachers can communicate with them. The intellectual thought of students from different ethnic groups is culturally encoded (Cazden, John, & Hymes, 1985) in that its expres-

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    sive forms and substance are strongly influ- enced by cultural socialization. Teachers need to be able to decipher these codes to teach ethni- cally diverse students more effectively.

    As is the case with any cultural component, characteristics of ethnic communication styles are core traits of group trends, not descriptions of the behaviors of individual members of the group. Whether and how particular individuals manifest these characteristics vary along con- tinua of depth, clarity, frequency, purity, pur- pose, and place. However, expressive variabil- ity of cultural characteristics among ethnic group members does not nullify their existence. It is imperative for teachers to understand these reali- ties because many of them are hesitant about dealing with cultural descriptors for fear of ste- reotyping and overgeneralizing. They compen- sate for this danger by trying to ignore or deny the existence of cultural influences on students’ behaviors and their own. The answer is not denial or evasion but direct confrontation and thorough, critical knowledge of the interactive relationships between culture, ethnicity, com- munication, and learning and between individ- uals and groups.

    Culturally responsive teacher preparation pro- grams teach how the communication styles of different ethnic groups reflect cultural values and shape learning behaviors and how to mod- ify classroom interactions to better accommo- date them. They include knowledge about the linguistic structures of various ethnic communi- cation styles as well as contextual factors, cul- tural nuances, discourse features, logic and rhythm, delivery, vocabulary usage, role rela- tionships of speakers and listeners, intonation, gestures, and body movements. Research reported by Cazden et al. (1985), Kochman (1981), and Smitherman (1994) indicated that the discourse features of cultural communications are more challenging and problematic in teaching ethni- cally different students than structural linguistic elements. The cultural markers and nuances embedded in the communicative behaviors of highly ethnically affiliated Latino, Native, Asian, and African Americans are difficult to recognize, understand, accept, and respond to

    without corresponding cultural knowledge of these ethnic groups.

    There are several other more specific compo- nents of the communication styles of ethnic groups that should be part of the preparation for and practice of culturally responsive teaching. One of these is the protocols of participation in dis- course. Whereas in mainstream schooling and culture a passive-receptive style of communica- tion and participation predominates, many groups of color use an active-participatory one. In the first, communication is didactic, with the speaker playing the active role and the listener being passive. Students are expected to listen quietly while teachers talk and to talk only at prescribed times when granted permission by the teacher. Their participation is usually solicited by teach- ers’ asking convergent questions that are posed to specific individuals and require factual, “right answer” responses. This pattern is serialized in that it is repeated from one student to the next (Goodlad, 1984; Philips, 1983).

    In contrast, the communicative styles of most ethnic groups of color in the United States are more active, participatory, dialectic, and multi- modal. Speakers expect listeners to engage with them as they speak by providing prompts, feed- back, and commentary. The roles of speaker and listener are fluid and interchangeable. Among African Americans, this interactive communi- cative style is referred to as “call-response” (Baber, 1987; Smitherman, 1977); and for Native Hawai- ians, it is called “talk-story” (Au, 1993; Au & Kawakami, 1994). Among European American females, the somewhat similar practice of “talk- ing along with the speaker” to show involve- ment, support, and confirmation is described as “rapport talk” (Tannen, 1990). These communal communication styles can be problematic in the classroom for both teachers and students. Unin- formed and unappreciative teachers consider them rude, distractive, and inappropriate and take actions to squelch them. Students who are told not to use them may be, in effect, intellectu- ally silenced. Because they are denied use of their natural ways of talking, their thinking, intellectual engagement, and academic efforts are diminished as well.

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    Another communication technique important to doing culturally responsive teaching is under- standing different ethnic groups’ patterns of task engagement and organizing ideas. In school, stu- dents are taught to be very direct, precise, deduc- tive, and linear in communication. That is, they should be parsimonious in talking and writing, avoid using lots of embellishment, stay focused on the task or stick to the point, and build a logi- cal case from the evidence to the conclusion, from the parts to the whole. When issues are debated and information is presented, students are expected to be objective, dispassionate, and explicit in reporting carefully sequential facts. The quality of the discourse is determined by the clarity of the descriptive information pro- vided; the absence of unnecessary verbiage, flair, or drama; and how easily the listener (or reader) can discern the logic and relationship of the ideas (Kochman, 1981). Researchers and schol- ars call this communicative style topic-centered (Au, 1993; Michaels 1981, 1984). Many African, Asian, Latino, and Native Americans use a dif- ferent approach to organizing and transmitting ideas: one called topic-chaining communication. It is highly contextual, and much time is devoted to setting a social stage prior to the performance of an academic task. This is accomplished by the speakers’ (or writers’) providing a lot of back- ground information; being passionately and per- sonally involved with the content of the dis- course; using much indirectness (such as innu- endo, symbolism, and metaphor) to convey ideas; weaving many different threads or issues into a single story; and embedding talk with feelings of intensity, advocacy, evaluation, and aesthet- ics. There also is the tendency to make the dis- course conversational (Au, 1993; Fox, 1994; Kochman, 1981; Smitherman, 1994). The think- ing of these speakers appears to be circular, and their communication sounds like storytelling. To one who is unfamiliar with it, this communi- cation style “sounds rambling, disjointed, and as if the speaker never ends a thought before going on to something else” (Gay, 2000, p. 96). These (and other) differences in ethnic commu- nication styles have many implications for cul- turally responsive teaching. Understanding them is necessary to avoid violating the cultural val-

    ues of ethnically diverse students in instruc- tional communications; to better decipher their intellectual abilities, needs, and competencies; and to teach them style or code-shifting skills so that they can communicate in different ways with different people in different settings for different purposes. Therefore, multicultural com- munication competency is an important goal and component of culturally responsive teaching.


    The final aspect of preparation for culturally responsive teaching discussed in this article deals with the actual delivery of instruction to ethni- cally diverse students. Culture is deeply embed- ded in any teaching; therefore, teaching ethni- cally diverse students has to be multiculturalized. A useful way to think about operationalizing this idea in the act of teaching is matching instruc- tional techniques to the learning styles of diverse students. Or, as the contributing authors to Edu- cation and Cultural Process (Spindler, 1987) sug- gested, establishing continuity between the modus operandi of ethnic groups and school cultures in teaching and learning. Many possibilities for establishing these matches, intersections, or bridges are implied in the previous discussions. For example, a topic-chaining communication style is very conducive to a storytelling teaching style. Cooperative group learning arrangements and peer coaching fit well with the communal cultural systems of African, Asian, Native, and Latino American groups (Gay, 2000; Spring, 1995). Autobiographical case studies and fiction can crystallize ethnic identity and affiliation issues across contextual boundaries (i.e., geographic, generational, temporal). Motion and movement, music, frequent variability in tasks and formats, novelty, and dramatic elements in teaching improve the academic performance of African Americans (Allen & Boykin, 1992; Allen & But- ler, 1996; Boykin, 1982; Guttentag & Ross, 1972; Hanley, 1998).

    Cultural characteristics provide the criteria for determining how instructional strategies should be modified for ethnically diverse stu- dents. Developing skills in this area should begin with teacher education students confronting the

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    misconceptions and controversies surrounding learning styles. Some might be resolved by under- standing that learning styles are how individu- als engage in the process of learning, not their intellectual abilities. Like all cultural phenom- ena, they are complex, multidimensional, and dynamic. There is room for individuals to move around within the characteristics of particular learning styles, and they can be taught to cross style parameters. Learning styles do have core structures, and specific patterns by ethnic groups are discernible (see, for instance, Shade, 1989). The internal structure of ethnic learning styles includes at least eight key components (which are configured differently for various groups): preferred content; ways of working through learn- ing tasks; techniques for organizing and con- veying ideas and thoughts; physical and social settings for task performance; structural arrange- ments of work, study, and performance space; perceptual stimulation for receiving, process- ing, and demonstrating comprehension and com- petence; motivations, incentives, and rewards for learning; and interpersonal interactional styles. These dimensions provide different points of entry and emphasis for matching instruction to the learning styles of students from various eth- nic groups. To respond most effectively to them, teachers need to know how they are configured for different ethnic groups as well as the patterns of variance that exist within the configurations.

    Another powerful way to establish cultural congruity in teaching is integrating ethnic and cultural diversity into the most fundamental and high-status aspects of the instructional pro- cess on a habitual basis. An examination of school curricula and measures of student achieve- ment indicates that the highest stakes and high- est status school subjects or skill areas are math, science, reading, and writing. Teachers should learn how to multiculturalize these especially, although all formal and informal aspects of the educational process also should be changed. Further analysis of teaching behaviors reveals that a high percentage of instructional time is devoted to giving examples, scenarios, and vignettes to demonstrate how information, principles, concepts, and skills operate in prac- tice. These make up the pedagogical bridges that

    connect prior knowledge with new knowledge, the known with the unknown, and abstractions with lived realities. Teachers need to develop rich repertoires of multicultural instructional examples to use in teaching ethnically diverse students.

    This is not something that happens automati- cally or simply because we want it to. It is a learned skill that should be taught in teacher preparation programs. The process begins with understanding the role and prominence of ex- amples in the instructional process, knowing the cultures and experiences of different ethnic groups, harvesting teaching examples from these critical sources, and learning how to apply multi- cultural examples in teaching other knowledge and skills—for instance, using illustrations of ethnic architecture, fabric designs, and recipes in teaching geometric principles, mathematical operations, and propositional thought. Or us- ing various samples of ethnic literature in teach- ing the concept of genre and reading skills such as comprehension, inferential thinking, vocabu- lary building, and translation. Research indi- cates that culturally relevant examples have pos- itive effects on the academic achievement of eth- nically diverse students. Boggs, Watson-Gegeo, and McMillen (1985) and Tharp and Gallimore (1988) demonstrated these effects for Native Ha- waiians; Foster (1989), Lee (1993), and Moses and Cobb (2001) for African Americans; García (1999) for Latinos and limited-English speakers; and Lipka and Mohatt (1998) for Native Alas- kans. Observations made by Lipka and Mohatt on their research and practice with using cul- tural examples to teach math and science to Yup’ik students in Alaska underscored the im- portance and benefits of these strategies for im- proving school achievement. They noted that

    Important connections between an aboriginal sys- tem of numbers and measurements and the hunting and gathering context from which it derived can be used as a bridge to the decontextualized abstract system often used in teaching mathematics and sci- ence, . . . can demystify how mathematics and sci- ence are derived . . . [and] visualize . . . ways in which everyday tasks and knowledge can be a basis for learning in formal schooling. (p. 176).

    A wide variety of other techniques for incor- porating culturally diverse contributions, expe-

    Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002 113



    riences, and perspectives into classroom teaching can be extracted from the work of these and other scholars. They are valuable models and incentives for doing culturally responsive teach- ing and should be a routine part of teacher prep- aration programs.


    The components of the preparation for and practice of culturally responsive teaching included in this discussion are not inclusive. There is much more to know, think, and do. These sug- gestions are merely samples of the knowledge and skills needed to prepare teachers to work more effectively with students who are not part of the U.S. ethnic, racial, and cultural main- stream. This preparation requires a more thor- ough knowledge of the specific cultures of dif- ferent ethnic groups, how they affect learning behaviors, and how classroom interactions and instruction can be changed to embrace these dif- ferences. Because culture strongly influences the attitudes, values, and behaviors that students and teachers bring to the instructional process, it has to likewise be a major determinant of how the problems of underachievement are solved. This mandate for change is both simple and pro- found. It is simple because it demands for ethni- cally different students that which is already being done for many middle-class, European American students—that is, the right to grapple with learning challenges from the point of strength and relevance found in their own cultural frames of reference. It is profound because, to date, U.S. education has not been very culturally respon- sive to ethnically diverse students. Instead, these students have been expected to divorce them- selves from their cultures and learn according to European American cultural norms. This places them in double jeopardy—having to master the academic tasks while functioning under cul- tural conditions unnatural (and often unfamil- iar) to them. Removing this second burden is a significant contribution to improving their aca- demic achievement. This can be done by all teachers’ being culturally responsive to ethni- cally diverse students throughout their instruc- tional processes. But they cannot be reasonably

    held accountable for doing so if they are not ade- quately prepared. Therefore, teacher preparation programs must be as culturally responsive to ethnic diversity as K-12 classroom instruction.

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    Au, K. H. (1993). Literacy instruction in multicultural settings. New York: Harcourt-Brace.

    Au, K. H., & Kawakami, A. J. (1994). Cultural congruence in instruction. In E. R. Hollins, J. E. King, & W. C. Hay- man (Eds.), Teaching diverse populations: Formulating a knowledge base (pp. 5-23). Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Baber, C. R. (1987). The artistry and artifice of Black com- munications. In G. Gay & W. L. Baber (Eds.), Expres- sively Black: The cultural basis of ethnic identity (pp. 75- 108). New York: Praeger.

    Banks, J. B., & Banks, C.A.M. (Eds.). (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education. New York: Macmillan.

    Boggs, S. T., Watson-Gegeo, K., & McMillen, G. (1985). Speaking, relating, and learning: A study of Hawaiian chil- dren at home and at school. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

    Boykin, A. W. (1982). Task variability and the performance of Black and White schoolchildren: Vervistic explora- tions. Journal of Black Studies, 12(4), 469-485.

    Campbell, C. P. (1995). Race, myth, and the news. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Cazden, C. B., John, V. P., & Hymes, D. (Eds.). (1985). Func- tions of language in the classroom. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

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    Cortés, C. E. (1995). Knowledge construction and popular culture: The media as multicultural educator. In J. A. Banks & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp.169-183).NewYork:Macmillan.

    Cortés, C. E. (2000). Our children are watching: How media teach about diversity. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Escalanté, J., & Dirmann, J. (1990). The Jaime Escalanté math program. Journal of Negro Education, 59(3), 407- 423.

    Foster, M. (1989). It’s cooking now: Aperformance analysis of the speech events of a Black teacher in an urban com- munity college. Language in Society, 18(1), 1-29.

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    Foster, M. (1995). African American teachers and cultur- ally relevant pedagogy. In J. A. Banks & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 570-581). New York: Macmillan.

    Foster, M. (1997). Black teachers on teaching. New York: New Press.

    Fox, H. (1994). Listening to the world: Cultural issues in aca- demic writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

    Fullilove, R. E., & Treisman, P. U. (1990). Mathematics achievement among African American undergraduates at the University of California, Berkeley: An evaluation of the Mathematics Workshop Program. Journal of Negro Education, 59(30), 463-478.

    García, E. (1999). Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Gay, G. (1995). A multicultural school curriculum. In C. A. Grant & M. Gomez (Eds.), Making school multicultural: Campus and classroom (pp. 37-54). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

    Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Gold, M. J., Grant, C. A., & Rivlin, H. N. (Eds.). (1977). In praise of diversity: A resource book on multicultural educa- tion. Washington, DC: Teacher Corps.

    Goodlad, J. I. (1984). A place called school: Prospects for the future. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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    Hanley, M. S. (1998). Learning to fly: Knowledge construction of African American adolescents through drama. Unpub- lished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.

    Hollins, E. R. (1996). Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Hollins, E. R., King, J. E., & Hayman, W. C. (Eds.). (1994). Teaching diverse populations: Formulating a knowledge base. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Howard, G. R. (1999). We can’t teach what we don’t know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

    King, J. E., Hollins, E. R., & Hayman, W. C. (Eds.). (1997). Preparing teachers for cultural diversity. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Kleinfeld, J. (1974). Effects of nonverbal warmth on the learning of Eskimo and White students. Journal of Social Psychology, 92(1), 3-9.

    Kleinfeld, J. (1975). Effective teachers of Eskimo and Indian students. School Review, 83(2), 301-344.

    Kochman, T. (1981). Black and White styles in conflict. Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press.

    Krater, J., Zeni, J., & Cason, N. D. (1994). Mirror images: Teaching writing in Black and White. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teach- ers of African-American children. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.

    Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Jour- nal, 32(3), 465-491.

    Lee, C. (1993). Signifying as a scaffold to literary interpretation: The pedagogical implications of a form of African-American discourse (NCTE Research Rep. No. 26). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

    Lipka, J., & Mohatt, G. V. (1998). Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Michaels, S. (1981). “Sharing time”: Children’s narrative styles and differential access to literacy. Language in Society, 10(3), 423-442.

    Michaels, S. (1984). Listening and responding: Hearing the logic of children’s classroom narratives. Theory Into Practice, 23(3), 218-224.

    Montagu, A., & Watson, F. (1979). The human connection. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Moses, R. P., & Cobb, C. E., Jr. (2001). Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights. Boston: Beacon.

    Pai, Y. (1990). Cultural foundations of education. New York: Merrill/Macmillan.

    Philips, S. U. (1983). The invisible culture: Communication in classroom and community on the Warm Springs Indian Res- ervation. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

    Porter, R. E., & Samovar, L. A. (1991). Basic principles of intercultural communication. In L. A. Samovar & R. E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader (6th ed., pp. 5-22). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

    Shade, B. J. (Ed.). (1989). Culture, style, and the educative pro- cess. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

    Sheets, R. H. (1995). From remedial to gifted: Effects of cul- turally-centered pedagogy. Theory Into Practice, 34(3), 186-193.

    Smith, G. P. (1998). Common sense about common knowledge: The knowledge bases for diversity. Washington, DC: Amer- ican Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.

    Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin’ and testifyin’: The language of Black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Smitherman, G. (1994). The blacker the berry the sweeter the juice: African American student writers. In A. H. Dyson, & C. Genishi (Eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community (pp. 80-101). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

    Spindler, G. D. (Ed.). (1987). Education and cultural process: Anthropological approaches (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

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    Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling in social context. Cam- bridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Wade, R. C. (1993). Content analysis of social studies text- books: A review of ten years of research. Theory and Research in Social Education, 21(3), 232-256.

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    Geneva Gay is a professor of education at the Univer- sity of Washington, Seattle, where she teaches courses in multicultural education and general curriculum theory

    within the graduate studies and teacher education pro- grams. She is a former high school social studies teacher. Her research, teaching, and scholarship interests include the interaction among culture, ethnicity, and education; curriculum design, staff development, and classroom instruc- tion for multicultural education; and bridging multicul- tural education theory and practice. She is the author of more than 130 articles and book chapters, the author of two books, and the coeditor of one. Her latest book, Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice (2000, Teachers College Press), received the AACTE 2001 Outstanding Writing Award.

    116 Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002


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Field Experience Observation Instructions

Field Experience Observation Instructions

For this assignment you will be required to observe one student in a classroom setting for two hours. During this observation you will record all of the behaviors displayed by the student. You should create a comprehensive and specific list of behaviors (eg. pulls his own hair, stares away from the teacher, whispers to her friend, throws pencil on the floor, etc.). The summary should be extremely detailed. Do NOT use the student’s real name in the summary. Create a pseudonym for the student in order to maintain confidentiality.

You will also complete an Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) chart during your observation. The ABC chart should include at least two behavior episodes. A template of the ABC chart has been included in the folder with this document.

The PREFERRED observation site would be in a classroom that provides assistance to students with emotional disabilities. The PREFERRED student for this observation would be an individual who has been known to exhibit challenging behaviors.

The Liberty University Field Office will NOT help you to find a school/classroom for this observation. You must independently approach schools in your community to organize the observation. You may use the attached letter if your chosen school requests additional documentation.

NOTE:  If you live in Central Virginia, you may NOT contact the local school systems (Lynchburg City, Campbell County, Bedford County, Appomattox County, and Amherst County) to complete the field experience requirement. You may contact the instructor of this course for your options. Thank you!

After the observation, provide a description of the student and a summary of the behaviors you witnessed during the observation. Analyze the behaviors and provide a few reasons as to why the behaviors might have occurred. Use information from your textbooks to support your reasoning.

The list of behaviors and the behavior summary should be 400-500 words. This does not include the words that will be used on the ABC Chart. Please copy and paste the ABC Chart onto the document that contains the list of behaviors and the behavior summary.

Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 3.


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High-Quality Early Childhood Program Google Site

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, please review the following early childhood education websites:

· Bright Horizons (Links to an external site.)

· Childcare Network (Links to an external site.)

Many parents begin their child’s program search via the Internet. Therefore, as a leader, having a vision for a program website, as well as the ability to create and develop a website, can benefit you in your future. Your program’s website plays a very important role in communicating a first impression to families. Many prospective parents use the Internet to help them identify possible early childhood programs in their geographic area, and then choose which programs they would like to visit or learn more about based on the information they find online. This is your opportunity to market your program. An attractive and well-designed website should be easy to read. Visitors to the site should be able to find the information they need quickly, with just a few clicks of a mouse.

For your Final Project, you will create a Google site for your own childcare program and facility using Google sites (Links to an external site.). Your Google site will be targeted toward prospective families and can be creative in the development but must include all of the following requirements. See the following exemplar for additional support: ECE312 Summative Assessment Example (Links to an external site.).

On your webpage, develop the following:

· Home Page

o Create a Google site for your own childcare program and facility using Google sites

o Develop an introduction that welcomes families to your center and webpage

· About Us Page

o Summarize your credentials and biography

o Explain the centers scope of services including: Ages served, hours of service, location of center and tuition or fees.

· Program Structure

o Establish daily structure including a curriculum unit plan, a sample lunch and snack menu, and explanation of your curriculum and developmentally appropriate practices.

· Philosophy

o Outline the philosophy and focus of the program, including your chosen theory from Chapter 1 and construct your center’s philosophy based on this theory.

o Design a statement that demonstrates how your center will address each of the ten NAEYC Standards:

§ Relationships

§ Curriculum

§ Teaching

§ Assessment of Child Progress

§ Health

§ Teachers (how you support your staff)

§ Families

§ Community Relationships

§ Physical Environment (indoors and out)

§ Leadership and Management (summary of your most recent professional development experience)

The Google Site must have a home page and at least five additional pages, with as many subpages as you would like, to address the required content above. You are encouraged to creatively address the material using graphics, visuals, charts, graphs, and sound and at least one visual (photo, drawing, clip art, word art., graphic) on each page. The website should be designed to clearly and concisely address the material for families. Be sure to use at least two professional resources and the course text.

The High Quality Early Childhood Program Google Site

· Must be five to 10 pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)

· Must be submitted to WayPoint as a word document that includes the following:

o Course name and number

o Instructor’s name

o Date submitted

o Title of website

o Working URL (copy the exact website address) that will be used to access your website.  You must make sure your website is Public or Accessible to anyone with the link in order for your instructor to access it to grade it.  For help doing this, use the Google Help tool within Google.

· Must use at least two professional resources in addition to the course text.

o The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

· Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper


Required Resources

Required Text

Gadzikowski, A. (2013). Administration of early childhood education programs. Retrieved from

  • Chapter 9: Evaluation and Assessment
    • This chapter looks closely at the role of administrators in child assessment and the relationship between child assessment and program assessment.
  • Chapter 10: Leadership and Advocacy
    • This chapter examines how administrators can ensure their knowledge base and credentials remain current.

Web Page

National Association for the Education of Young Children. (n.d.). The 10 NAEYC program standards (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from

  • This web page provides information about the NAEYC standards for early childhood education program and will assist you in your High-Quality Program Assessment Scenario discussion this week.
    Accessibility Statement does not exist.
    Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)


Bright Horizons (Links to an external site.). (

  • This site offers the opportunity to review a stellar website to help design your own site. This website provides information about an early childhood education program and will assist you in your High-Quality Early Childhood Program Google Site assignment this week.
    Accessibility Statement does not exist.
    Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)

Childcare Network (Links to an external site.). (

  • This website offers the opportunity to review an established early childhood website to help design your own site. This website provides information about an early childhood education program and will assist you in your High-Quality Early Childhood Program Google Site assignment this week.
    Accessibility Statement does not exist.
    Privacy Policy

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