Options for organizational strategy

You have just been hired as an information manager and your supervisor has asked you to provide the following information for your company.

  •  Describe three (3) options for organizational strategy.
  •  Provide three (3) examples of companies that follow each of the selected strategies for which you would want to work.
  •  Provide a description of how three (3) companies used their strategies for competitive advantage.
  •  Provide one (1) description of how you would employ a different or unique strategy, for one of the companies, for competitive advantage that has not been stated in your previous answer.


Organizational Strategies

In the rapidly evolving business world, organizations employ different strategies to achieve their goals and objectives and remain competitive in the market. Given that information technology plays a pivotal role in shaping an organization’s success, it is important for information managers to understand various organizational strategic options and how they can be leveraged by an organization to gain competitive advantage. While there are several conventional options for organizational strategy, an organization that explores unique strategies ultimately gains competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Options for Organizational Strategy

Lynch (2018) emphasizes three fundamental strategic options available to an organization, including cost leadership, differentiation, and focus strategies as proposed by Porter. The cost leadership strategy allows a company to gain competitive advantage in the industry by being the lowest-cost producer. An organization that pursues this strategy sells its products at relatively lower prices than those of competing firms while still maintaining the industry standard, thus making profits. The ability to offer lower prices is derived from a company’s ability to operate on lower costs at every stage of the value chain, making it possible to still make profits for low-priced products or services.

A differentiation strategy involves creating unique products or services that are perceived as superior by consumers in the market (Henry, 2018). Thus, an organization is able to charge higher prices when its products or services meet customer expectations better than what competitors offer. Companies differentiate their products or services in a variety of ways, including offering better levels of services, better performance or using luxurious materials. Essentially, customers are prepared to pay more for distinctive high quality products and services that meet their expectations more closely.

            A focus strategy allows an organization to focus on a specific niche in the market place and develops products or services that target that market segment (Henry, 2018). The segment may be defined by a specific product line, geographical market, or a particular customer group. (Lynch, 2018) posits that companies that adopt this strategy may further use a cost focus approach or a differentiation approach to seek a cost advantage or differentiation in the target market respectively.

Examples of Companies that Follow the Selected Strategies

            Walmart, RyanAir, and McDonalds are examples of companies that implement cost leadership as a generic strategy. Apple, Tesla, and Nike are companies that implement a differentiation strategy to set themselves apart from other companies offering similar products in the market. Lastly, Rolex, Rolls-Royce, and Ferrari are examples of companies that focus on particular niches in the market place.

A Description of how Three Companies used their Strategies for Competitive Advantage

            Walmart’s competitive advantage is derived from different factors but the leading driver is its cost leadership strategy (Gooderham et al., 2019). Since its establishment, the company adopted cost-saving accounting strategies and continues to develop these strategies, building up its competitive advantage over time. For instance, the company buys directly from producers and suppliers in bulk, acquiring those products at relatively lower prices.  Additionally, it manages its logistics, thus controlling operational expenses and saving money. Reducing costs at every stage of the supply chain enables it to sell its products at relatively lower prices than competitors.

            Apple Inc. has continued to follow a product differentiation strategy since the 1980s (Daim &Meissner, 2021). The company manufactures differentiated products such as Macintosh home computers, iPod music players, and iPad and iPhone mobile devices that target a section of the consumer market. This differentiation enables the company to charge premium prices for its products, and helps the company capture market share from its competitors and grow the overall demand for its products.

Rolls-Royce is a niche player in the global car market offering products that cater to a small market segment with a penchant for quality, prestige, and engineering excellence (Daim & Meissner, 2021). It represents a good example of a focus differentiation strategy targeting buyers from the ultra-luxury segment of the market. Through its luxury automobiles, the company has positioned itself as a symbol of excellence and prestige appealing to high-end consumers who seek status symbol and unparalleled quality.

Description of how one would Employ a Unique Strategy for Apple

            Apple Inc. can implement market penetration as a viable strategy to increase its market share within the existing market and enhance its competitive advantage (Griffin, 2022). For instance, the company can bundle its products and offer discounted prices for purchasing apple devices together, such as a bundle for iPhone, iPad, and Apple watch. The company can also adjust the prices of its products through promotional pricing and periodic discounts to make them more appealing to a larger customer base. Lastly, the company can also enhance its market penetration strategy by expanding its distribution channels to reach new market segments and regions without moving out of its current range of products.


              The development of strategic options aims to explore various options available for organizational strategy and is a fundamental part of the strategic process. Porter proposed three generic strategies open to any business including low-cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategies. Although such rational approaches are usually used to develop strategic options, in practice, it is important to develop creative options to ensure that the organization has an edge over its rivals. Continuous development of creative strategic options builds a company’s competitive advantage and helps it achieve business growth over time.


Daim, T. U. and Meissner, D. (2021). Innovation management in the intelligent world: cases and tools. Cham: Springer.

Gooderham, P. N., Grøgaard, B., and Foss, K. (2019). Global strategy and management: theory and practice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Griffin, R. W. (2022). Management. Boston: Cengage.

Henry, A. E. (2018). Understanding strategic management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lynch, R. L. (2018). Strategic management. Harlow, England: Pearson.

Basic needs and human rights

1. Rights vs. Needs

What is the difference between the basic needs and human rights approach to development?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches?

2. Human Rights Indicators

What are human rights indicators?  Why are they significant?


2014 \”Human Rights Indicators – Rationale and Some Concerns\”

United Nations \”The Human Rights-Based Approach\”


\”The Core International Human Rights Instruments and their Monitoring Bodies\”


Prudence and principle in international society: reflections on Vincent\’s approach to human rights



  1. Basic needs and human rights

Development is a diverse process intended to bring social change to people thus enabling them reach optimal human potential. However, there are different approaches to development including the basic needs approach and the human rights approach. This creates a need to differentiate between the two approaches and their individual strengths and weaknesses.

The basic needs approach

This approach to development is geared towards prioritizing the achievement of basic needs (Franczak, 2018). The fundamental needs vary where some only consider nutrition, education, shelter and health while others include employment and political freedom. This approach emanates from the view that development should first consider eliminating absolute deprivation.


The approach recognizes human basic needs and puts work towards meeting people’s basic needs (Franczak, 2018). It also focuses on solving the immediate causes of problems that affect the people’s ability to meet basic needs.


While this approach emphasizes on alleviating poverty, it is based on increased consumption. The approach emphasizes on actions aimed at the outcome thus, recognizes the acceptance of charity as a driving force towards meeting the basic needs (Franczak, 2018). It also trivializes poverty alleviation by not empowering the people and ignoring the social context.

Human Rights approach

This approach focuses on the promotion, achievement and protection of human rights in accordance with the international human rights standards (UNSDG, 2021). Utilizing this approach requires recognition that human rights are obligations requiring capacity building of the right holders and the duty bearers. Additionally, this approach is based on the human rights principles of equality, accountability, participation, universality, indivisibility and non- discrimination.


This approach emphasizes on meeting rights through empowerment (UNSDG, 2021). It focuses on meeting obligations through holistic programs that cover the social, political, economic and cultural aspects involved and which are guided by policies.


Depending on the approaches implementation, it may involve legal battles between duty bearers and right holders (UNSDG, 2021). This creates opposition mostly between governments and the people thus being ineffective in achieving development.

  1. Human Rights Indicators

Human rights are obligations belonging to all people protecting them of actions that interfere with human dignity or with their freedom (OHCHR, 2021). Due to their characteristics, human rights require a measurement guide; thus the human rights indicators. Such guides contain information on standards, norms and activities related to human rights for possible use in implementation, assessment and monitoring of human rights. Indicators can be quantitative or qualitative, fact based or subjective based, performance oriented or compliance. They are designed to promote, measure or promote the realization of human rights.


Measuring, monitoring and assessment are crucial processes that enable quality improvement, effective implementation and problem solving. Therefore, human rights indicators are essential to the effective implementation and realization of rights with their importance having been recognized in human rights treaties (OHCHR, 2021). As such, they are practical tools that help in implementing and assessing human rights. With the many demonstrations and human rights violations, there is need for human rights enforcements. Indicators serve to help identify the impact and effectiveness of human rights activities, outcomes, events or actions.

Qualitative indicators offer evidence-based information while quantitative indicators offer statistics and empirical data on human rights (OHCHR, 2021). This enhances accountability as it connects obligations and enables diagnostic and enforcement measures on human rights activities. When used appropriately, indicators help governments put up clear information regarding the state of human rights in their area. This makes it possible for the state to assess their progress, allow solid follow up, and recommendations to ensure people enjoy human rights.


Franczak, M. (2018). Human rights and basic needs: Jimmy Carter’s North-South dialogue, 1977–81. Cold War History18(4), 447-464.

OHCHR. (2021). Human Rights and Indicators: Rationale and some Concerns. Retrieved from: https://www.ohchr.org/documents/issues/HRIndicators/AGuideMeasurementImplementationChapterI_en.pdf

UNSDG. (2021). Universal Values. Human Rights-Based Approach. Retrieved from: https://unsdg.un.org/2030-agenda/universal-values/human-rights-based-approach

How Covid 19 is reshaping supply chains

Using the tools and techniques discussed during this module you are to write an essay which addresses the case of the Global semiconductor shortage below and fully answers the three questions posed. The essay should be 3000 words (+/- 10%) in length. The word count does not include tables, figures, appendices or reference section.

Case Study:

Read the article “How Covid 19 is reshaping supply chains” by McKinsey.  The article discusses a survey on building supply chain resilience in response to Covid-19.  The article mentions that “our survey revealed significant shifts in footprint strategy. Last year, most companies planned to pull multiple levers in their efforts to improve supply-chain resilience, combining increases in the inventory of critical products, components, and materials with efforts to diversify supply bases while localizing or regionalizing supply and production networks. In practice, companies were much more likely than expected to increase inventories, and much less likely either to diversify supply bases (with raw-material supply being a notable exception) or to implement nearshoring or regionalization strategies”. Imagine you are the Chief Operating Officer of Flex Ltd., previously known as Flextronics International Ltd. or Flextronics) an American Singaporean-domiciled multinational electronics contract manufacturer. It is the third largest global electronics manufacturing services (EMS) original design manufacturer (ODM) company by revenue, behind only Pegatron#

1a) What supply chain strategies would you recommend that Flex Ltd. follows to build resilience in the context of Covid 19? Please justify your answer

1b) What are the benefits and drawbacks of your strategy and what potential obstacles would you need to overcome in implementing your strategy?   Please justify your answer

1c) How would you convince Flex Ltd. Board of Director’s to implement your proposed recommendations, and roughly how long would it take to put your strategy in place?


The essay will be assessed on the basis of five criteria:

1.Structure, presentation of essay and clarity of expression – A clear, professional, well presented and structured essay (20% of total mark)

2.Statement of the Operations Problem/Opportunity – A Clear demonstration of a well-developed, critical and comprehensive understanding of key operations process, management and performance issues (10% of total mark)

3.Analysis of the Operations Problem/Opportunity–  A demonstrated degree of competence in the application of the tools and techniques of operations management to the pertinent problem/opportunity (40% of total mark)

4.Recommendations for improvement – a demonstrated degree of competence in providing clear workable recommendations with explanations of relative merits, tradeoffs and constraints (20% of total mark).

5.Timeline for implementation of recommendations – A clear and concise discussion of the proposed implementation plan, with detailed listing of potential barriers to the success of implementation (10% of total mark).


The author and date of the source (Handfield et al. 2003) should be included in the body of your discussion whenever specific ideas, arguments, models, and/or information are used in your discussion



Constant crises in the business environment necessitated supply chain resilience for most companies. Crises like the Brexit scenario, sanctions in Russia and China forced organizations to strategize how they conduct business with a more diverse supply chain. Several supply chain strategies help build resilience in the industry, while mitigating certain circumstances. Organizations need resilient measures to ensure a robust supply network to sustain them through a season. The COVID 19 pandemic season of 2019/2020 forced most companies to make it a sustainable habit for the organizations to develop new resilience strategies. Supply chain strategies are all about innovation and accepting new ideas to help the company maintain its overhead and turnover for the year ended of business.

The pandemic forced businesses to revamp their outlook on business premises for sustainability. Businesses suffered when the COVID 19 hit, and many were forced to improvise their supply chain networks. In any healthy business environment, the networks of suppliers, manufacturers, insurance and customers are crucial. These networks give the business the security required when handling new companies for the long term (Belhadi et al., 2021). As such, there should be strategic steps that enable a company to revitalize new supply chain links to mitigate a loss or certain inequities (Dolgui and Ivanov, 2020). Development of alternative supply chain strategies for companies will enable them to continue with their business operations despite the shortfalls posed by COVID 19 pandemic across the globe.

Resilient Supply Chain Strategies

To establish supply chain resilience, Flex ltd should adopt different strategies that are often for the benefit of the business in the long term. The COVID 19 pandemic, just like any crisis, exposed the supply chain flows of businesses (Dolgui and Ivanov, 2020). Looking at their initial supply chain model, their linear model is always standard for the company, and pre-covid was smooth, but adjustment needed to be made. Flex ltd should see the cost of retaining multiple supply locations as a means of doing business instead of an insufficiency.

First, having inventory buffers helps mitigate the shortage of supply. The main problem with Flex ltd is that with a global need for copper, they lack the materials to complete making electronics (Hosseini, Ivanov and Dolgui, 2019). They can’t ship unfinished products since negative market reviews only make the business reputation poor. With buffers like contracting junkyards worldwide to specifically sell their copper wires can help cover the missing supply chain buffers as such yards are like multiple supply centres of a product which is a prerequisite for any company having the capacity to handle many products and goods. The real shortage of copper wires should give them a reason to explore new areas of a possible acquisition, as it’s often challenging to maintain a steady supply.

Secondly, the company should engage in manufacturing network diversification whereby Flex ltd can have multiple manufacturing locations to maintain a solid supply chain. The disruptions of sanctions, politics, and the pandemic can all be mitigated when there are diverse manufacturing areas (Belhadi et al., 2021). This also creates a new supply chain route with various suppliers, customers and regulations. Maintaining multiple manufacturing bases is an added expense in the business but is seen as a necessity.

Thirdly is to make use of multisourcing strategy that will enable the organization to make up for losses. COVID 19 exposed the inefficiency in supply chain issues, especially in the manufacturing sector. Most companies like Flex ltd depend on one supply source for their products (Ivanov and Dolgui, 2020). Having a diverse supply source should also be strategic. Each supply source as well as their networks of how they get the product and quality should be known to Flex ltd. The sourcing suppliers should also be categorized on impact and how they drive the agenda of Flex ltd as an electronics manufacturer with different product measures.

Lastly, the company should aim at having a reliable ecosystem partnership with other electronic manufacturers to help build a network of companies coexisting to supply complete electronics. Since the company is domiciled, the financial incentive to maintain multiple locations and stores might be an extra expense (Ivanov and Dolgui, 2020). The company is also supposed to handle partnerships that are mutually beneficial to supply resilience and keep up with the demand in the market.

Benefits and drawbacks of the strategies

Each strategy contains various advantages as they ensure a constant supply of raw materials necessary for the business activities. Inventory buffers play a crucial role in the company’s supply chain strategy. A company with inventory buffers ensures the material flows in time, especially with the speed at which the company requires manufacturing. Assembling electronics using different suppliers but with a more measured handle on the product helps showcase a more reliable way of handling the process (Namdar, Li, Sawhney and Pradhan, 2017). Additionally, a supply buffer offers security for the company to provide the right services required of the company. Multiple centres also give the company numerous sources of getting products and supply excesses for business. In case of a problem like the sudden pandemic shutting down most of the world’s supply chain, there can be an alternative to work with. However, one major drawback of such buffers is that it increases the cost of production as resources have to be allocated in the management of such buffers which consequently eats in the company’s profit margins.

The advantage of diversifying the manufacturing network is also similar to inventory buffers. Having more than one manufacturing location helps showcase a more reliable and realistic way to spread the investment (Pettit, Croxton and Fiksel, 2019). Diversification of Flex ltd electronics manufacturer having different warehouses, supply networks and customers to complete the supply chain enables the company to have ready products in different locations for their customers. The other benefit of having multiple manufacturing points is that it helps to develop a complex supply strategy that enables the overall provision of the process. However, one major drawback is that the diversification strategy increases operational costs for a company as more employees will need to be hired to manage the multiple manufacturing points

The implementation of artificial intelligence in the supply chain revolutionized the industry and is a major supply chain strategy that Flex Ltd can adopt. The expectation was automation within the supply chain management, which further increased business productivity (Pettit, Croxton and Fiksel, 2019). Combining the two high technology applications enables the transportation systems to bring zero errors and faster customer service. Automation and artificial intelligence enable the goods to be sorted, labelled, and categorized in their various delivery destinations and conveniently arranged for delivery. The calibration efficiency is due to many iterations with machine intelligence and ensuring that the parameters for the technology conveniently cover the error-prone areas that human beings are susceptible to (Pettit, Croxton and Fiksel, 2019). The agility and accuracy it performs in the business are unprecedented since it requires faith-based systems of efficiency to give customers the right combination of data and goods that are accurately tailored to their consumer needs. However, a major challenge/drawback of using artificial intelligence is that it does not encourage creativity that is often associated with humans and the cost of implementation is also high.

Obstacles to Overcome in Implementing the Strategy

One of the major obstacles in the implementation of the proposed supply hain strategies is in regards to costs. Due to the negative financial effects of COVID 19, many businesses are struggling to stay afloat as the income of potential customers was significantly affected thus reducing their purchasing power. Consequently, the reduced purchasing power reduced sales for companies thus, such strategies that require intensive capital to implement may not be realizable.

Another major obstacle is in regards to restrictions that have been put in place by different countries amidst the wake of COVID 19 pandemic. These restrictions will pose a major challenge to the implementation process as some restrictions are discouraging travels and movement of goods in the now famed, “red zones” across the globe.

Supply Disruptions

When COVID 19 hit its peak in 2020, massive business operations were affected, and the global economy came to a standstill. Moreover, the supply chain was affected since goods could not move to their destination due to travel restrictions. The world was unprepared for the disruption as most business models depended on the supply chain model of receiving goods from suppliers and using them before paying at a premium rate within 90 days. The goods in transit were always through air or water transport which were massively developed over the years to connect businesses worldwide (Pires Ribeiro and Barbosa-Povoa, 2018). The pandemic also disrupted the business quota system, which companies depended on to get paid, earn interests, and reward their employees.

Resilience and Recovery

Resilience requires two critical capabilities; the capability for recovery and resistance. The supply chain resistance is its ability to delay any disruptions and reduce the interruption impact, while the recovery capability is the supply chain’s ability to recover from any disturbances (Pettit, Croxton and Fiksel, 2019). Businesses ought to adapt to the new norm and develop more robust supply chain models, and the best one is the lean manufacturing strategy. Toyota, Apple, and Boeing used this supply chain model to ensure their supply chain diversification. For instance, Apple products are developed by different manufacturers whereby some companies make the iPhone body and the operating system while the supply chain assembles the parts at the factories in China. This is a stop-gap measure against any operational disruption that may render the products redundant.

The recovery stage after the pandemic always determines which businesses would prosper and which ones would fail. For instance, the 2011 Japanese earthquake disaster affected both Toyota and Nissan’s supply chain, whose suppliers were battered by the disaster (Pires Ribeiro and Barbosa-Povoa, 2018). However, the difference between the two companies was the recovery capabilities of their supply chains. Nissan was able to recover since they used alternative suppliers for their short-term fall, helping them regain market share quickly. Companies are always supposed to have alternatives to their supply chain to ensure they get the right combination of prospects and business opportunities outside their regular operating jurisdictions. Moreover, a resistive and recoverable supply chain model helps save costs and the company operations through transitions. However, the business still trades in the new markets, and with globalization, the business opportunities become more competitive and open to any company willing to work and benefit (Pires Ribeiro and Barbosa-Povoa, 2018). Similarly, Flex should adopt such models that guarantee resiliency amidst disaster.

Risk Barometer

The risk barometer highlights the different disaster levels that guarantee a business loss, with the highest risks being natural calamities, political unrest, or cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks, systems are always crippled, and the result is still a shutdown in business. Hedge funds are adversely affected when online strategies are down since they usually trade the stock market using algorithms (Pires Ribeiro and Barbosa-Povoa, 2018). However, an alternative means to earn an income is selling penny stocks. These are paper stocks that are not affected by online attacks and can save millions without losing too much money. Similarly, Flex must develop alternative means of supply chain development to help its business recovery and reinvestment since the pandemic’s sudden effect on the world caught businesses by surprise. It led to massive loss of business, livelihoods, and lives.

Implementing the Recommendations

The timeline for implementing supply chain strategies takes a minimum of 6 months to 1 year as this is the time for setting up processes and supply chain points. A supply point forms the premise of setting up different ways of having a complex supply chain taking electronics from all the points and distribution towards all customers (Pires Ribeiro and Barbosa-Povoa, 2018). To implement the recommendations, Flex Ltd should adopt measures and strategies that ensure that there are no disruptions in the supply chain processes. Mergers, partnerships and acquisitions can be one of the major considerations for the company. The strategies are comparable with other reputable companies which, upon implementation, there has been a steady change in the business flow. This may convince the management to implement the strategies, but a gradual implementation of the process helps to showcase a more realistic way of handling new supply chain processes.

As a manufacturing entity, there should be different points in which the company can create awareness to the consumers of other branches. The supply chain resilience is crucial in times of pandemics and crisis, with fail-safes that can only have suitable supply provisions. The supply chain management regulates the right direction in which the product flows, and Flex ltd is solely concentrating on manufacturing electronics for the market (Pires Ribeiro and Barbosa-Povoa, 2018). As such, there should be a niche product to show how well the supply is handled for the process. Also, the management should be able to identify proper measures with regulation by applying the three-step model to implement the supply chain. The manufacturing sector entails a long-term strategy with the supply process where poor inventory control is addressed.

Using artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence in the supply chain is the best way to address supply chain issues since the technology eases the process through iteration. This implementation takes time since the right technology should be handled at the right time. Flex ltd makes the supply chain process more realistic by looking at the economic setup of the country and gaining on the right direction in which the process is done. Electronics distribution, especially with the proper diversification, can easily be automated when Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) collaborate. Developing the right AI for robust supply chain management takes time (Sá, Miguel, Brito and Pereira, 2019). The appropriate form of the proper avenues helps in the implementation and there should be avenues through which the management manages to have a more reliable way to handle the supply chain resilience.

AI is an integral part of the implementation of system logistics since the algorithms make it essential for the proper formation of the process. As such, Flex should have a more realistic view on how to handle new systems, which would show how well the supply chain meshed with artificial intelligence and help resolve the supply issue. For instance, machine learning implements steps on how products can be sorted according to quality, location, and need of the parts. The manufactured parts can also be linked to the geographical region, showing how well the process was handled for the long term and Flex should adopt this strategy. The long-term effect of artificial intelligence is the development of a complex system that helps in having logistical solutions to the distribution of products that belong to Flex ltd.

In a pandemic era, various cost-effective measures may prove beneficial to the company. There should be a realistic way to handle the process for the long term and give the company a more practical system to distribute the products (Sá, Miguel, Brito and Pereira, 2019). The costs of stock should be a priority to ensure that products supply to customers is not interrupted despite the challenges in the wake of COVID 19 pandemic. The expected growth in demand should also be met with the corresponding anticipation of the stock as the proper formation of systems shows a more realistic way of handling the store in the long term. Flex ltd implementation process is also hinged on having more people gain towards a long-term provision and strategy for the proper supply chain management process.

Lean manufacturing technique

Lean manufacturing aims at maximizing productivity while minimizing wastage in a manufacturing company within its production process (Wilson, 2015). This implementation model can work with lean synchronization, as it shows a more realistic way of handling supply chain process. Similarly, Flex Ltd should adopt lean synchronization process by ensuring that the response time from their suppliers as well as the customers is reduced significantly. During the pandemic, the supply chain can be implemented through performance metrics that show the value stream alignment of the process. Lean synchronization is also used to fasten the implementation process, and it often reveals how well the process can spread and benefit the company. As a multinational company, Flex should be concerned with the breaking of the supply chain. This can also be transformed from a traditional system to a more cloud-based and advanced design. Amazon used this model to implement most of its services, and it is not the most significant single distributor of most products in the world. They own the value chain and multisource supply chain with a complex AI to show distribution power thus reducing response time in regards to supply chain. Having the geolocation of products and sending them using outsourced companies helps maintain the proper formation. It might be expensive to keep, but it is necessary to distribute Flex ltd products exclusively and with convenience.

The Kanban system

The Kanban system is a visual representation of what activities are currently for the purposes of inventory control. The process enables the identification of bottleneck operations to ensure that a product moves through the production process conveniently with ease and at optimal speeds (Vatalaro & Taylor, 2005). As such, Flex should adopt the Kanban system and identify all bottlenecks in its production process and in the inventory control process. management, there should be a complex system to show how well the process goes. Since the Kanban system uses the just-in-time manufacturing system, Flex ltd will be able to track the production process, order materials on time to ensure continuity of the production process and thus reduce the build up of excess stock within the production process.


COVID 19 pandemic changed the supply chain management as it disrupted the supply chain process significantly. However, the disruption was a learning phase for companies to adopt convenient strategies to manage their supply chain and ensure that the production process runs smoothly amidst a pandemic. Flex Ltd can also utilize such strategies as lean manufacturing and synchronization, Kanban system and the use of AI services to manage the supply chain and ensure that the operations of the company and the supply of products to consumers runs smoothly and uninterrupted. Additionally, having various supply chain outlets located in different locations across the globe has proved to be an effective way of ensuring the continuity of the production process for companies. This is due to the fact that many countries have developed their own measures and restrictions in regards to travels which has significantly affected the supply chain process for companies. However, the adoption of better supply chain management strategies will ensure a smooth running of business for Flex Ltd thus give it a competitive edge in the market.


Belhadi, A., Kamble, S., Jabbour, C., Gunasekaran, A., Ndubisi, N. and Venkatesh, M., 2021. Manufacturing and service supply chain resilience to the COVID-19 outbreak: Lessons learned from the automobile and airline industries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 163, p.120447.

Dolgui, A. and Ivanov, D., 2020. Exploring supply chain structural dynamics: New disruptive technologies and disruption risks. International Journal of Production Economics, 229, p.107886.

Hosseini, S., Ivanov, D. and Dolgui, A., 2019. Review of quantitative methods for supply chain resilience analysis. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 125, pp.285-307.

Ivanov, D. and Dolgui, A., 2018. Low-Certainty-Need (LCN) supply chains: a new perspective in managing disruption risks and resilience. International Journal of Production Research, 57(15-16), pp.5119-5136.

Ivanov, D. and Dolgui, A., 2020. A digital supply chain twin for managing the disruption risks and resilience in the era of Industry 4.0. Production Planning & Control, 32(9), pp.775-788.

Namdar, J., Li, X., Sawhney, R. and Pradhan, N., 2017. Supply chain resilience for single and multiple sourcing in the presence of disruption risks. International Journal of Production Research, 56(6), pp.2339-2360.

Pettit, T., Croxton, K. and Fiksel, J., 2019. The Evolution of Resilience in Supply Chain Management: A Retrospective on Ensuring Supply Chain Resilience. Journal of Business Logistics, 40(1), pp.56-65.

Pires Ribeiro, J. and Barbosa-Povoa, A., 2018. Supply Chain Resilience: Definitions and quantitative modelling approaches – A literature review. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 115, pp.109-122.

Sá, M., Miguel, P., Brito, R. and Pereira, S., 2019. Supply chain resilience: the whole is not the sum of the parts. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 40(1), pp.92-115.

Shashi, Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R. and Ertz, M., 2019. Managing supply chain resilience to pursue business and environmental strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(3), pp.1215-1246.

Vatalaro, J. C., & Taylor, R. E. (2005). Implementing a mixed model Kanban system the lean replenishment technique for pull production. New York, NY, Productivity Press.

Wilson, L. (2015). How to implement lean manufacturing. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Education.



ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

In this assignment, you will be presented with five nursing scenarios. Each scenario can be analyzed using certain provisions and interpretive statements from the ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Provide brief answers in response to each case that includes what you would do if you were the nurse involved. Identify and explain the provisions and the interpretive statements that justify your responses.


Analysis of Ann’s case based on ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

1. Ann, RN is caring for John, a patient on the orthopedic unit of a local community hospital. John is one day post-op from a left total knee replacement. He was up in a chair for lunch today, but did not tolerate it well and refuses to get up for dinner. John weighs 350 lbs. and has several comorbidities. Ann feels frustrated and impatient with John and his unhealthy lifestyle.

Action: As the nurse, I would respect John’s decisions even though I do not agree with them. This means that since I know his unhealthy lifestyle is risky to his health, I would compassionately and patiently address this, offer him relevant information and resources to help him change his lifestyle and mitigate the risk.

Justification: Provision 1 emphasizes on respect to patients’ dignity, worth and their unique attributes (American Nurses Association, 2021). As such, a nurse should practice with compassion and be unbiased. Respect should be given regardless of the patient’s nature of health and lifestyle such as in John’s case. Being respectful and compassionate will help establish a good relationship with the patient creating room to advise them and help promote health and wellness without overruling their decision. Patients have a right to receive accurate information to facilitate an informed decision.

The case of Sarah based on ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

2.  Sarah, ARNP has been working with a group of physicians in their private practice. Recently, the physicians have become partners in a business that promotes multivitamins for such things as arthritis, energy level, and overall health. They have offered Sarah a portion of the profits for every patient she signs up for the vitamin program.

Action: Due to the conflict of interest presented by the situation, I would disclose the situation with the other partners for full disclosure of the position I am in. I would then seek to withdraw from the business.

Justification: Based on the 2nd provision of the ANA (2021), a nurse’s primary commitment is towards the patient. Promoting multivitamins for financial gain may create conflicts of interest thus affecting healthcare decisions (Kim, Nicotera, & McNulty, 2015). Addressing the conflict would help ensure patient safety and preserve the nurse’s professional integrity and ensuring there is collaboration.

Analysis of Rose’s case based on ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

3. Rose, RN is caring for Arthur, a 79-year old with a small, asymptomatic hernia and is scheduled for hernia repair surgery this morning. Consequently, he asks Rose if this surgery is really necessary, mentioning “watchful waiting” as an idea he found on the Internet. He had a brother that died having a minor surgery. Rose phones the physician and explains her patient’s concerns. The physician speaks to Arthur, who then agrees to have the surgery.

Action: As the RN, I would allow Arthur to go for the surgery since he has agreed to it after being spoken to by the Physician. However, I would facilitate a consultative meeting between Arthur, the physician and I before surgery. This would ensure Arthur secures all information on questions he may not have asked regarding the surgery.

Justification: Effective healthcare requires collaboration between all the different health professions (Tan, Zhou & Kelly, 2017). Provision 2 of ANA (2021) emphasizes on collaboration thus allowing Arthur for surgery indicates a shared decision and mutual trust between the RN and the physician.

Case analysis of Adam based on ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

4.  Adam, RN has been working at an extended care facility for almost eight months and has become increasingly concerned about safety issues at the facility. He thinks the staffing is inadequate for the number of patients, and the policies and procedures are inaccessible. As one of only three RNs on the unit, Adam has been trying to improve conditions and make sure policies are visible and up-to-date. He has had very little success.

Action: To handle the scenario, as the RN, I would express my concerns about the safety issues to the facility’s administrator.

Justification: According to the interpretative statement 3.5 for the third provision, nurses should ensure protection for the patient’s health by acting on any concerns (Winland-Brown, Lachman, & Swanson, 2015).  Nurses should follow a reporting process to ensure any questionable concerns are effectively handled for the promotion of a patient’s health.

Tom’s case based on ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements

5. Tom, RN is eating lunch with his co-workers at his place of employment and a co-worker tells the group about a man who checked into the Emergency Department earlier in the day with a foreign object stuck in his rectum who was later sent to surgery for its removal. You and your co-workers find it funny, and it’s possible that others in and/or outside of the room could hear your discussion and laughter.

Action: As the RN involved, I would withdraw from the conversation since it is a breach on my obligation to maintain privacy and confidentiality.

Justification: Nurses should ensure confidentiality and privacy of patient’s information (Price, 2015). Provision 3 emphasizes on the promotion and protection of the patient’s health, rights and privacy. Additionally, interpretative statements further indicate that nurses should maintain confidentiality and control the extent within which patient’s information is disclosed.


American Nurses Association. (2021). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

Kim, W., Nicotera, A. M., & McNulty, J. (2015). Nurses’ perceptions of conflict as constructive or destructive. Journal of Advanced Nursing71(9), 2073-2083.

Price, B. (2015). Respecting patient confidentiality. Nursing Standard (2014+)29(22), 50.

Tan, T. C., Zhou, H., & Kelly, M. (2017). Nurse–physician communication–An integrated review. Journal of Clinical Nursing26(23-24), 3974-3989.

Winland-Brown, J., Lachman, V. D., & Swanson, E. O. C. (2015). The new Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements (2015): Practical clinical application, Part I. Medsurg Nursing24(4), 268.