nswer 2 (Q: Women composers throughout the 20-21C)
Pauline Oliveros is widely regarded as one of the most influential American
composers in the 1920s. In the 20th century, she encouraged in-depth listening, was open
to what was happening, and actively founded participating communities throughout her
life. Oliveros was born in 1932. She is a composer, performer, writer and philosopher.
She has been active in the forefront of many music movements. Growing up in Houston,
she listened to metropolitan opera’s radio broadcasts Philharmonic and NBC. She also
indicated that her mother was one of the first people to influence her creative thoughts
and ideas. After studying at the University of Houston for three years, she went to San
Francisco State University to study deeper in composition. After her graduation, in 1957,
she and her classmates Terry Riley and Loren Rush began to try improvisation. She
explained that “while the convention music circles of the 1950 s were not exploring
music in this man. The Jazz World was exploring the Breadth of Improvisation SoundsIn
the mid-1960s,” she expanded her scope of creation by collaborating with dramatic
works, such as Elizabeth Harris, Anna Halprin, Merce Cunningham and others who were
dancers and choreographers.
Just like John Cage, he has given “music”, “composer” and “quiet” new definitions.
Oliveros has also expanded the definition and attention of the sonic environment, and the
total environment is equally important to her. At the same time Oliveros began to try a
sound meditation practice, which became the label for her in the future. Sonic
Meditations, which she created in 1974, is also one of her greatest works. Oliveros
encourages the listeners to listen to their own voices and the surrounding environment
deeply, which plays a certain role in the construction and rehabilitation of music
psychology. In the United States and abroad, she is one of the most famous and popular
advocates for training listening awareness. She regularly returns to various parts of the
world to teach and perform. Oliveros was the first director of the Tape Music Center of
Oakland Mills College. California, which is the Center for Contemporary Music right
now, and she is also an outstanding music professor of RPI. She did not get a doctor’s
degree that was very important as a professor in college at that time. for Pauline Oliveros,
she has been focusing on listening to everything around her all her life. she said in the
magazine American music that she grew up in the rural areas of Houston, so she adapted
to the sound of the natural environment at an early age and was influenced by it. She also
thinks that electronic sound is more limited to an audio range than natural sound, but
natural sound is not.
The four sources of Oliveros’s music material are: 1. All the music she has heard; 2.
All the sounds she has heard from nature (including her own internal physiological
sounds); 3. All the voices she heard in the technological world; 4. All the voices she
imagined. But she also has some electronic works, such as her Alien Bog. She uses some
repeated high pitch sounds as introduction. As the pitch drops, Oliveros adds various
sounds to the music, influenced by the frog sounds she heard in studio at Mills. These
sounds also seem to come from all directions, such as horn sounds, chirp sounds, bubble
sounds and rumbling sounds. However, she did not record the croaking of frogs, nor did
she translate the croaking of frogs into the specific pitch of music. Her aim is also to give
the audience more imagination space in such a whole voice.
In addition, most of Oliveros’s works are based on her integration into the natural
environment. No matter where she is, she enjoys and freely experiences her environment
and listens to all the voices around her. Oliveros himself explained: “All is nature that
supports life forms of all kinds; humanity is the body of life forms called humans. . . The
relationship is symbiotic.” This is why she pays attention to meditation and total
environment in his music composition.
Glahn, Denise Von. “Pauline Oliveros.” Essay. In Music and the Skillful Listener American Women Compose the Natural World, 102–28. Indiana University Press, 2014.
Kelly, Jennifer, and Pauline Oliveros. “Pauline Oliveros.” Essay. In In Her Own Words: Conversations with Composers in the United States, 1