A high-level summary of ethical and cultural issues that you identified in the case.

need corrections made to this paper. attached are original paper along with directions and instructors feedback on what changes are needed on the paper



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Write a 6–8-page action plan to resolve issues in a case study  based on evaluation of relevant psychological theory, research,  principles, and standards.

When faced with a problem that involves psychology, you could merely  rely on lessons drawn from your own personal experience, but of course,  your education in this field has given you greatly enhanced sources of  guidance.


Return to the case study that you considered in Assessments 1 and 2.

  • Identify two or three psychological theories and principles that  help to explain the reasons for the problem and point toward potential  solutions for it.
  • Use the Capella University Library to locate at least three  scholarly research studies in an area of psychology relevant to the  problem. If you have had the opportunity to conduct or assist formal  research in an academic or professional context, you may be able use the  study in this assessment. However, if you wish to do so, e-mail a copy  of the study to your instructor and ask for confirmation that it is  appropriate for the assessment.


Complete the following:

  • Create a title page: Write a brief title that  concisely conveys the purpose of this report. It is suggested that you  use the APA Paper Template, linked in the Resources under the APA  Resources heading, to format your paper to format your work according to  the APA manual (current edition).
  • Write an introduction: For the introduction section of your paper, include the title at the top of the first page. (In APA format, the word Introduction is not used as a heading.) Briefly summarize:
    • The case you have chosen.
    • A high-level summary of ethical and cultural issues that you identified in the case.
    • How theories and research, in general terms, help explain the problems in the case and point toward solutions.
    • How the case relates to a larger societal problem or problems.
  • Create a heading titled Case Issues: Review the case issues, including the ethical and cultural issues, in more detail.
  • Create a heading titled Theoretical Framework:  Analyze how two or three psychological theories help explain the  problem and point toward potential solutions. In doing so, cite relevant  principles or concepts derived from these theories. For example:
    • Let us say that we are assisting an adolescent from Germany  who has moved to the United States and is having a rough time adjusting  to her new high school. In addition to information gathered from her,  her parents, and the school, we could consider Erikson’s psychosocial  theory and the stage of identity and role confusion in which adolescents  search to establish their own values, beliefs, and goals. During this  important time of identity development, the teen has been immersed in an  entirely different culture with values and beliefs different from the  one which she knows. We could consider to what extent she was mastering  the stage prior to and then after the move. Based on sociocultural  theory, we would enquire about the differences in culture that may be  impinging on her success in interacting in her new environment. By  integrating the two theories, we can get a better understanding of how  her developmental stage is clashing with her sociocultural context. We  might search for research on adolescent development and cross-cultural  experiences to get a better understanding of what research demonstrates  is effective in assisting teenagers in this position.
  • Create a heading titled Related Research:  Summarize at least three research studies that pertain to the problem. A  summary will provide your reader with a clear understanding of the  purpose of the study, the methods, and the findings.
    • Describe the research designs and methods used in the studies.
    • Use principles of critical thinking to evaluate the quality of the research and analyze the relevance to the problem.
      • Evaluate how the research methods employed support the studies’ findings.
      • Analyze how the studies’ findings explain reasons for the problem and point toward potential solutions.
      • Analyze how the studies’ findings relate to the psychological theories you previously cited.
      • Compare findings of the studies and assess how they support or contradict each other.
      • See if any contradiction is apparent. If so, try to  explain why the contradiction may have developed and which position is  more credible and why.
  • Create a heading titled Action Plan:  Based on your theoretical and research findings as well ethical and  cultural considerations, provide an action plan with recommendations for  how to resolve the problem you researched in a fair and just manner.
    • Make clear how the objectives of your plan are specific,  measurable, achievable, and relevant to the problem, and the timeline  for implementation should be.
    • Integrate information from your sources to support your recommendations.
  • Create a heading titled Conclusion:  Briefly summarize the importance of the problem, how psychological  theories, principles, and research may point to ways improve the  problem, and the implications for a larger societal problem or problems.

Keep in mind throughout this assessment that while your writing must  conform to APA standards, you must explain all information in a manner  that can be easily understood by a nonacademic or nonscientific  audience.

Refer to the Research Analysis and Action Plan Scoring Guide to ensure that you meet the grading criteria for this assessment.

Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:

  • Written communication: Written communication is well organized and free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA style: Comply with current APA style and formatting.
  • Number of resources: A minimum of three academic resources.
  • Length: 6–8 typed, double-spaced pages, excluding the cover page and references.
  • Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.



Thank you for submitting your u3a1 paper. SafeAssign indicated that  your paper has a 52% match for plagiarism and this is too high. While  you can use some of the same information from other assessments, you  copied verbatim the same information from assessments 1 and 2.  Assessment 3 asks for different information and you need to address  those questions as you will need to use all 3 assessments for your unit 4  presentation.

While the assessments do build on each other, they  do also require very different information. It would not make sense to  submit the same information for 3 assessments and you need the 3  assessments to complete the unit 4 presentation. The first assessment  asks you to choose a case study and analyze an ethical dilemma within  it, based on the application of ethical principles. You were asked to  think of this ethical analysis as a report you would make in a  professional context. Then in Assessment 2, you were asked to report on  cultural aspects of the same case. This is not the same as unit 1. In  Assessment 3, you were asked to apply psychological theories, research,  principles and standards to develop an action plan to resolve the case.  Again, this is not the same as unit 1 or unit 2 so you should not have  the exact same information submitted in all 3 papers. I hope this helps  as Assessment 4 asks you to submit your presentation to communicate your  research and plan based on your 3 assessments.

You  cited most places but had several areas where you did not cite. You are  almost there! You need to write in your own words only and cite properly  in order to demonstrate your own learning and understanding of the  material. In order to demonstrate your understanding of the material,  you need to write in your own words.

You are so close! If you  do include a quote, you need to cite it properly and use quotation  marks and page numbers in your citations. If a quote is 40 words or  more, you need to use block format. You can amend this paper and submit  your next revision. The problem is that you need to cite  properly when you take information from other sources. Please work with  your tutor to cite properly and consistently throughout your paper.




Managing Drug Addiction using Psychological theories

Student’s Name





According to the new definition of the American Society for the Treatment of Addiction, addiction is a chronic brain disease. This applies not only to alcohol and drugs, but also to gambling or uncontrolled absorption of food, doctors say, so the treatment of addiction, like any chronic disease, takes a lot of time. Behavioral problems are a consequence of a brain disorder. And brain pathology persists for many more years after a person stops using drugs. A complex interaction of emotional, cognitive and behavioral patterns takes place in the brain (Moos 2006). Genetics has an impact on this process (people who experimented with drugs during adolescence or took strong painkillers after injuries are more addicted), age (the frontal lobes, which help to end unhealthy behavior, ripen among the latter, therefore it is more difficult for adolescents to cope with addiction) as well as the fact that you use alcohol or drugs to counter stress. As a result of exposure to dopamine in the hypothalamus, a connection is established between taking something and getting pleasure, which persists even when the use of these substances no longer brings pleasure due to addiction. Understanding how different theories approach drug addiction, it would be possible to develop an effective action plan. It is the goal of this paper to evaluate different theories that focus on the drug addiction and then use the concepts and principles focused to develop an action plan for a drug addict.

Case Issues

Drugs are substances that primarily act on the nervous system, causing false states of fun, complacency, pleasant calm, or vice versa excitement. Sometimes illusions and hallucinations, narcotic sleep, sometimes poisoning may appear. With frequent repetition of the reception, the need becomes unlimited and control is lost over it. As a result, in case of cancellation of the reception, a state of withdrawal occurs as a result of the absence of the usual poison in the body. This is accompanied by instability in mood, irritability, apathy, fears, pains throughout the body and a decrease in mental abilities. Addiction is such a state of life when a person, instead of becoming interested in the world, begins to be interested only in the drug, the need to use it, his craving for it, the sensations that he gives birth to, and so on. Attachment to a drug, to a single tiny particle of our vast world, is gradually building a wall between man and the whole world. This isolating attachment is a deadly disease with social, physiological and genetic background (Arria & McLellan 2012).

The mental state of many drug addicts today is nostalgia for their own lost soul, a dreary fear of the emptiness of their own lives with lost faith, with lost hope, with the effort of spiritual resurrection. They need to learn to live without drugs and life has provided such a chance. Mankind has driven itself into a dead end, but it is necessary to have faith that, perhaps, it will be possible to get out of it. When meeting with such phenomena, it becomes clear that this is a hard-won dependence. Ability to manage the cases of drug addiction could be a big breakthrough to many drug addicts who have almost lost touch with reality due to drugs.

Theoretical Framework

A number of theories have been formulated to help explain how different elements predispose one to drug addiction. Some of the theories would be discussed below

Gestalt theory

Perls’ classical Gestalt theory is also based on the concepts of holism. Holism is a synergistic concept; she claims that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Someone may represent a certain behavior or symptom, but this only becomes meaningful when viewed in the context of an entire individual. In the holistic approach to therapy, attention is focused on various aspects of the personality that manifest themselves (actualize) (Fletcher 2013). Instead of concentrating solely on one aspect, the point of view of holism considers the whole person. Central to holism are the ongoing dynamic processes that are present in the “action”, the act of creation. Only past experience and behavior cannot determine or dictate future action. Thus, the personality is not determined only by past actions or by its history. In Gestalt psychology, the central concept is experience. A person can know only what she knows. Thus, the Gestalt approach does not have absolute and definite knowledge. Knowledge for the most part is relative. A phenomenon (phenomenon) is something that appears in our consciousness. For instance: imagination, dreams, consideration, that is, a personal perception of reality. The central problem of this orientation is the ability to develop methods that describe phenomena as they really are. At the same time, it is necessary that everyone approaches the phenomenon with a completely open consciousness and without prejudice (Kovac, 2013).

Medical theories

Proponents of the somatic medical model relate to alcohol or drug dependence (or a combined dependence on both substances) from a physiological point of view. It is believed that in most cases, constitutionally (organically) – a determined predisposition exists even before the use of substances. This model provides the basis for treatment methods that focus on physical problems, such as cirrhosis of the liver or neuralgic disorders. In accordance with this approach, drugs are implanted (such as Torpedo, Esperal) (Fletcher 2013).

The psychiatric model. Proponents of this model have the following argument – dependence should be considered as a symptom of a “hidden” psychiatric disorder. Once this disorder is identified and treated, addiction can be eliminated. But gestalt therapy should not focus solely on this one aspect, because it is too restrictive and artificial. In the practical application of this model, when the patient is often treated by psychotherapists with a psychoanalytic orientation, harmful ideas are often fixed, for example, that oral fixation or latent homosexuality can cause disturbances. These concepts are quite tough and come into conflict with the principles of gestalt therapy, which works only with existing phenomena and believes that each person shapes his life, making basic choices (determining your path). Van Inen, describes in his book a number of practical obstacles in the method of treatment of psychotherapy with a psychoanalytic orientation, including the inability of the client to keep promises or coming to therapeutic treatment in a drug or alcohol state. Gestalt’s philosophical principles provide a more significant basis for treatment: both the patient and the therapist need to make them responsible for their own lives, for their own actions (Felice & Kouimtsidis 2012).

The primary objection to the analytical model is that it allows the patient to hide behind his illness. The result of this is that he feels helpless in the face of her. Gestalt therapy has developed many interventions, often borrowed from philosophy, to modify or eliminate the phenomenon of biased responsibility, weakened self-support and dependence. This includes awareness training, which focuses on how everyone applies the language, organizes their life, realizing the true needs, and experimenting to test hypothetical assumptions.

According to Letner, therapy should not consist only of finding the best ways of existence. We must also free ourselves from the old gestalt (stereotypical, habitual ineffective methods of solving problems, behavior). They are the cause of most of the anxieties we experience. This process of liberation allows the use of energy that was previously absorbed by the so-called violation in the direction of healing oneself (Fletcher 2013).

Behavioral Therapy Model.

For proponents of this model, alcohol or drug addiction is seen as an acquired, destructive, solitary behavior system, or as a complex of behavior systems. There are two elements of this model: behavior therapy is an approach and a set of techniques; Behavior therapy applies experimentally validated teaching principles in clinical practice. This model is the only one that contradicts Gestalt’s view of the human body. It focuses on behavior: intrapsychic functioning is rejected. It is believed that without clinical intervention, the patient cannot take responsibility for his actions, and thus change in his relationship with others. Further, in the clinical setting, the patient can learn to take responsibility, only by applying a system of punishments and rewards as a result of applying scientifically-researched methods. This is diametrically opposed to the Gestalt approach, in which the therapist helps the patient learn himself (Fletcher 2013).

Microsocial model. This model examines the addiction or abuse of alcohol or drugs as a symptom of a disturbance in interpersonal relationships. Thus, a violation exists in the relationship between individuals, and not only on the part of one of the participants. Applying this orientation, the patient is given the opportunity to redesign his behavior in order to develop a more positive relationship. The violation of relationships, from the point of view of Gestalt, can be defined as a violation of the contact boundary, occurring in the person (ego) or in his environment. Van Praag cites Perls’ agreement with the description of field theory in his work, i.e. the study and prediction of behavior begins with the study of the complete situation in which the behavior appears. Only subsequently can the components determining behavior be separated from those, which are inside a person or in his environment. Thus, systemic therapy and gestalt therapy can happily coexist as long as they respect everyone’s principles (Kovac, 2013).

Macro-social model. In this model, as a socio-critical model, they accuse that the huge increase in alcohol abuse and drug addiction is determined by the strong stresses of modern society. They turn to politics for a solution. This approach does not comply with the principles of Gestalt philosophy: Lupens Meyer points out that in today’s society, in order for the patient to move from a position of helplessness to strength, the therapist must teach not only integrity, but also the ability to develop and use his own behavior strategy. This must be done in such a way as to engage the cognitive activity of the patients with whom they are working, so that they can recognize the impact of the social system in which they are located and make their choice. For example, when truth is needed (truthfulness, openness) and when in reality a lie can be the only way to preserve one’s integrity (Craske, 2010).

Reception Model. This model considers patients as close people who deviate from social norms, but its deviation, nevertheless, may be acceptable. This approach also defines the human model and finds practical application in attempts to help welcome family members into their home environment. All Gestalt philosophy principles can be used for this model. Those therapists who work primarily from this point connect the patient with the environment that exists, without insisting or changing it. This attitude is known for motivating a number of people to enter the process of change. This attitude, however, does not include (does not imply) uncritical perceptions of any kind of behavior. If the patient goes beyond the limits established by the therapist, then naturally he experiences all the ensuing consequences.

Related research

A number of studies that have been conducted have demonstrated the validity of different theories mentioned above. A study by Bentley (2007), for example, demonstrated how imbalance between internal and external environment could increase the chance of one developing drug addiction behaviors. The study reveals that the reason for substance abuse is if a person is unable to maintain their inner life and external behavior. Moos (2003), on the other hand, demonstrate how social context could contribute to drug addiction. He revealed that social context serves as both a risk factor and protective factor for substance use, playing an important role in addiction’s initiation. The same argument was echoed by Longabaugh et al (1993). On the same vein, Bauman and Ennet (1996) revealed how peers could increase the chances of a person engaging in drug especially if the peers are drug users.

Action plan

Step 1: Treatment and detoxification.

Detoxification is the first step to treatment. Due to the fact that severe withdrawal symptoms (symptoms) of alcohol or drug addiction may occur, the doctor should discuss with the patient the question of which treatment is preferable – inpatient or outpatient.

Step 2: Strengthening awareness

Strengthening the experience of awareness of the boundaries between the inner, outer and intermediate worlds. With the help of cognizing the difference between the outside world and the inner world, the patient learns to differentiate them in his awareness. He begins to realize that he feels something, that he thinks about this sensation and that he wants to do with it.

Step 3: Help the addict get chance of using his or her energies and skills

The living conditions of a modern person confront him with negative impacts on the psycho-emotional sphere. In the process of accumulating or raising problematic material, a person has a need to understand it, to feel the inner meaning of his life, to learn how to combine social effectiveness with spiritual growth and self-healing.

Step 4: Empower the addict spiritually

As we said at the beginning, in order to successfully resolve a complex issue, there must be a look at it from the outside. In our opinion, a person needs to overcome the framework of his own prison, a prison of stereotypes, foundations, and dependence. Going beyond the scope of your problems to the transpersonal level is the main task.

Step 3: Resocialization

A sign of this period can serve as a solution to practical cases. An important topic here is: will the patient take responsibility again and what emotions and feelings will come to the fore at this stage, i.e. fear and insecurity in making their own decisions. During this period, the patient may also encounter problems on the social network. It is important to try and find the actual needs of the patient, and what he feels disappointed in. In therapy, the patient can complete old and unresolved gestalt, experimenting and realizing new ones.


There is no doubt that the environment very often affects human behavior. It especially affects the behavioral views of a vulnerable young person. And it is the family and the educational institution that should play a limiting role, protecting the teenager from the influence of adverse factors. Unfortunately, these “subjects” often do not cope with their roles. The family, as a unit of society, must bring up healthy citizens for this society. Suppose a child lives in a so-called dysfunctional family, in which parents, as a rule, are immersed in their problems, for example, how to feed a family, often abuse alcohol or even take drugs. And as a result, in such families the child is not given proper attention – he lacks parental care, affection, good advice, understanding, support in creative and other endeavors. The same picture can sometimes be observed in wealthy families, where parents are sometimes passionate about the process of making money and pay attention to their child once a month or once a week, when they give him pocket money. All this, of course, leaves a negative imprint on the young vulnerable psyche of the child. He is looking for “necessary attention” among his friends, i.e. in the company of the same adolescents, sometimes falling under her influence may also become involved in drug use. Do not forget that “a person exists thanks to a social group, not in a certain space. In protest against spiritual standards, against the indifference of the inner circle, young people are often united in companies that acquire their rituals and rites. ” So the family, as a unit of society, is not always able to educate a full-fledged citizen in society. Consequently, the school should also play a large role in terms of replenishing education. But with the current state of affairs in the education system, it does not always fulfill its immediate responsibility.



Arria, A. M., & McLellan, A. (2012). Evolution of Concept, But Not Action, in Addiction Treatment. Substance Use & Misuse, 47(8/9), 1041-1048.

Bauman K. and Ennet S. (1996). On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: commonly neglected considerations. Addiction. 91: 185– 98.

Bentley, R. (2007). Social complexity in behavioral models. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 30(1), 19.

Craske, M. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy / Michelle G. Craske. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2010.

Kovac, V. (2013). The more the ‘Merrier’: A multi-sourced model of addiction. Addiction Research & Theory, 21(1), 19-32.

Longabaugh R., Beattie M., Noel N., Stout R. and Malloy P. (1993).The effect of social investment on treatment outcome. J Stud Alcohol 1993; 54: 465– 78.

Moos R. (2003). Social contexts: transcending their power and their fragility. Am J Commun Psychol 31: 1–13.

Moos R. (2006). Social contexts and substance use. In: W. Miller, K. Carroll, editors. Rethinking, Substance Abuse: What the Science Shows and What We Should Do About It. New York: Guilford Press, p. 182– 200.

Nora J. (2013).Models and Theories of Addiction and the Rehabilitation Counselor. Research Papers. Paper 478. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/gs_rp/478

Felice, A., & Kouimtsidis, C. (2012). Improving services offered by GPs to patients with drug addiction. Mental Health Practice, 16(1), 19-22

Fletcher, A. M. (2013). Inside rehab: The surprising truth about addiction treatment — And how to get help that works. New York, NY US: Viking.