1 According to Aronson’s analysis of the Challenger disaster, which of the following most likely did not contribute to the disaster?
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• NASA had already conducted two dozen successful launches.
• A school teacher was on board, which had created more publicity than normal.
• At NASA a lift-off decision was a more desirable decision than a delay.
• NASA engineers assured management that all safety measures had been taken.
Explain why you selected this answer.
2. Suppose you saw a small child eating lima beans with obvious reluctance. When asked why she was eating them if she wasn’t fond of them, she replied, “Because Big Bird eats his vegetables, and I want to be like him!” What type of conformity is she displaying?
Why is this the best answer and what might explain this type of conformity in a small child?
3. Aronson and O’Leary conducted a study designed to encourage water conservation among male students showering at the university field house. Under what conditions were students less likely to conserve water. Explain the conditions under which students were more likely to conserve water (by turning off the shower while soaping up).
4. Why did Milgram conduct his experiments on obedience? What features, according to this article, helped to account for the high levels of obedience displayed by Milgram’s subjects?
5. Define and give examples of compliance, identification, and internalization. Which of these has the most permanent influence on an individual’s behavior? Select one of these responses and describe an instance of your own behavior which might be or have been the result of this particular type of social influence.
6. Why don’t bystanders come to the aid of victims of injury or crime? Summarize the reasons for non-intervention by bystanders. Summarize the conditions under which some bystanders do respond to someone in distress.
1. The catharsis theory of aggression holds that:
a. aggressive impulses, if kept bottled up, will eventually fade away.
b. one act of aggression usually leads to further aggression.
c. one act of aggression reduces the likelihood of further acts of aggression.
d. frustration leads to aggression.
Why did you select this answer?
2. The Iroquois Indians lived in peace for hundreds of years as a hunting nation, but in the seventeenth century, trade introduced by Europeans brought the Iroquois into competition with a neighboring tribe. A series of tribal wars developed, and the Iroquois ultimately became ferocious and successful warriors. This series of events suggest that:
a. warlike behavior is the result of uncontrollable aggressive instincts.
b. competition inevitably leads to violence.
c. changing social conditions can lead to changes in aggressive behavior.
d. aggressive behavior ensures evolutionary survival.
Why is this the best answer?
3. Bushman and Bonacci had an experiment in which people watched violent or sexually explicit or neutral TV shows with advertisements. Under which conditions did men and women recall the advertised products? How did the experimenters explain the reasons for this outcome?
4. Explain Malamuth’s findings on the predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression.
5. Some people believe that exposure to, or participation in, aggressive behavior is beneficial because it allows people to release their pent-up aggression. Where do you stand on this issue? Do you agree or disagree with this premise? Be sure to back up your answer with examples of relevant research.
6. Most everyone would agree that reducing human aggression is a worthwhile goal—one that may be crucial to our survival as a species. Summarize two of the several methods for achieving this goal. Support your choices with the relevant research.