What are two (or more) co-existing reasons the authors of the chapter list for research article authors to cite the work of others?

Question 3. Penrose and Katz, in their chapter “Reading and Writing Research Reports”, describe a variety of high-level, argumentative, and linguistic patterns which are generic to scientific research articles. Importantly, however, they ground these observations in the rhetorical situation by describing the venues in which these articles appear and the way these articles are constructed, read, and referred to. This grounding presents the opportunity to recognize multiple (often simultaneous) rationales for the structures observed. Consider specifically citation in journal articles. What are two (or more) co-existing reasons the authors of the chapter list for research article authors to cite the work of others? How might these reasons be rationalized in terms of their connection to elements of the rhetorical situation?  And how might those rationalizations be used to supplement Hyland’s empirical/linguistic discussion of citation patterns?

Question 4. In class we talked about how the mechanical connection of phrases is a strong syntactic technique for imparting emphasis. We also discussed how syntactic and lexical techniques deployed with the purpose of manipulating the feel of text in one way might also impact other textual properties. Considering our exercises and readings over the last few weeks, describe how the concepts of co- and subordination discussed in class might connect to the “rudimentary” idea of unity, identified in our reading as a property necessary but not sufficient for paragraph cohesion. (To answer this question, you may want to begin by defining the terms unity and coherence as they are defined in the text and then detailing how they are related to cohesion. From there, you can comment on how the phrasal coordination techniques discussed in class function in terms of these terms, as well as in terms of emphasis and cohesion.)

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