The Origin of Autism and the Importance of early diagnosis

The Origin of Autism and the
Importance of early diagnosis
LaRoya Mitchell
Saint Leo University

Title: For a sociology of expertise: The social origins of the autism epidemic.

Authors: Eyal, Gil, Columbia University, New York, NY, US, ge2027@columbia.edu

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Address: Eyal, Gil, Department of Sociology, Columbia University, 1180 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY, US, 10027, ge2027@columbia.edu

Source: American Journal of Sociology, Vol 118(4), Jan, 2013. pp. 863-907.

Page Count: 45

Publisher: US : Univ of Chicago Press

ISSN: 0002-9602 (Print)

Language: English
Abstract: This article endeavors to replace the sociology of professions with the more comprehensive and timely sociology of expertise. It suggests that we need to distinguish between experts and expertise as requiring two distinct modes of analysis that are not reducible to one another. It analyzes expertise as a network linking together agents, devices, concepts, and institutional and spatial arrangements. It also suggests rethinking how abstraction and power were analyzed in the sociology of professions. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by using it to explain the recent precipitous rise in autism diagnoses. This article shows that autism remained a rare disorder until the deinstitutionalization of mental retardation created a new institutional matrix within which a new set of actors—the parents of children with autism in alliance with psychologists and therapists—were able to forge an alternative network of expertise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Subjects: *Autism; *Epidemics; *Experience Level; *Professional Development; Sociology

PsycINFO
Classification: Developmental Disorders & Autism (3250)

Title: Proposed changes to the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder: Implications for young children and their families.
Authors: Grant, Roy, Children’s Health Fund, New York, NY, US, rgrant@chfund.org
Nozyce, Molly, Division of Developmental Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, US, molly.nozyce@nbhn.net

Address: Grant, Roy, Children’s Health Fund, 215 West 125th Street, Suite 301, New York, NY, US, 10027, rgrant@chfund.org

Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol 17(4), May, 2013. pp. 586-592.

Page Count: 7

Publisher: Germany : Springer

ISSN: 1092-7875 (Print)
1573-6628 (Electronic)

Language: English

Abstract: The American Psychiatric Association has revised the diagnostic criteria for their DSM-5 manual. Important changes have been made to the diagnosis of the current (DSM-IV) category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This category includes Autistic Disorder (autism), Asperger’s Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The DSM- 5 deletes Asperger’s Disorder and PDD-NOS as diagnostic entities. This change may have unintended consequences, including the possibility that the new diagnostic framework will adversely affect access to developmental interventions under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs, Early Intervention (for birth to 2 years olds) and preschool special education (for 3 and 4 years olds). Changing the current diagnosis of PDD-NOS to a “Social Communication Disorder” focused on language pragmatics in the DSM-5 may restrict eligibility for IDEA programs and limit the scope of services for affected children. Young children who meet current criteria for PDD-NOS require more intensive and multi-disciplinary services than would be available with a communication domain diagnosis and possible service authorization limited to speech-language therapy. Intensive behavioral interventions, inclusive group setting placements, and family support services are typically more available for children with an autism spectrum disorder than with diagnoses reflecting speech-language delay. The diagnostic distinction reflective of the higher language and social functioning between Asperger’s Disorder and autism is also undermined by eliminating the former as a categorical diagnosis and subsuming it under autism. This change may adversely affect treatment planning and misinform parents about prognosis for children who meet current criteria for Asperger’s Disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Subjects: *American Psychological Association; *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; *Pervasive Developmental Disorders; Diagnosis

 

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