Review all of your evaluations for each element and recommended improvements to the test,

This assignment is a culmination of the previous assignments you have completed during this course. In this assignment, you will synthesize your previous research as well as conduct research on the final element in the Code, Element 9. Element 9 states that a test user, “evaluate(s) the available evidence on the performance of test takers of diverse subgroups . . . determine(s) to the extent feasible which performance differences may have been caused by factors unrelated to the skills being assessed.” Together, the previous course assignments and this current one involving Element 9 will provide you with the data, research, and literature reviews across all nine elements of the Code to assist your decision-making process about the appropriate selection of a test.

For this final assignment:

  • Locate reviews or research related to how Element 9 applies to your selected test. If the research or reviews do not address this element in any way, then you will need to cite the references you reviewed and note that they were lacking in in addressing this element, drawing appropriate conclusions for when a test is lacking such evidence.
  • Synthesize all of the data and information you gathered on your selected test throughout the course and identify highlights, both positive and negative, both advantages and disadvantages, according to all nine elements of the Code. See the link in the resources about the Meaning of Synthesis.
  • Evaluate your selected test based on these data and draw a conclusion about whether it is a test that you would select, recommend, or even defend, if necessary in practice. Note: You should not merely copy and paste your earlier assignments for the final paper. Instead you will be synthesizing the research you completed for each element into a summary of that element that you will offer in support of your final evaluation. (For example, note that the technical quality element (that is, Element 5) will be only a synthesis and evaluation and not a repeat of the annotated bibliography you completed in Unit 5.)
    • Identify the strengths or weaknesses for each element, and determine if the information about that element supports (or opposes) the use of your selected test in the field and population to be served.
    • Incorporate recommendations about ways to improve the selected test.
    • Review all of your evaluations for each element and recommended improvements to the test, and write an overall evaluation and determination about the use of your selected test. Would you recommend this test to a school district or business that you are employed as a consultant? Would you be able to defend the use of this test in a court proceeding?

Instructions for the content of the paper are in the template located in the Resources. Write your assignment using the u09a1 Assignment Template [DOCX].

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Additional Requirements

Your paper should meet the following requirements:

  • References: A minimum of nine references. These may include journal articles, literature reviews, MMY reviews, and publisher websites. At least five of the nine references must be from professional journals. It is likely and appropriate that many of these references and citations were included in one or more of your previous assignments. Alternatively, you may want to supplement your paper with current, peer-viewed journal articles you located after completing an earlier assignment. Those inclusions would also be acceNeuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB)

    Toni L. Hagen

    Capella University













    Back in the day there wasn’t nearly as many testing opportunities that we have today. Paper and pencil were the most common because there wasn’t the technology to improve testing. NAB testing has gone from paper and pencil to using technology to not only benefit the individual administering the test but also the teste. Improvements have been made over the years to enhance findings and be able to treat people more appropriately. Test items and format has changed a long with materials needed, fairness, type of technology and many more.

    Test Items and Format

    The NAB test is comprehensive and adapted assessment that can combine strengths of both flexible and fixed battery, which this allows clinicians to focus on a specific area (Robert A. PhD. & Travis White, PhD., (2020). NAB test offers a variety of ways to be completed, an individual can buy a single kit instead of a package. There is also an option that allows for stand-alone purchases too (Robert A. PhD. & Travis White, PhD., (2020). The NAB test can be used for individuals from age 18-97, with formats of using a paper and pencil along with software (Robert A. PhD. & Travis White, PhD., (2020). Software that is recommended for the NAB test includes; a computer with windows 10,8,7, Vista, XP (SP3 or later) and Mac OS X v10.6 but doesn’t work with Linux systems which can be a limitation for some (NAB, (2020). The NAB allows the latest version of Google Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge and Safari 8 or higher. If someone is needing it traveling the NAB works with most IOS and Android devices (NAB, (2020). Some people can be concerned with what type of readers the NAB can be associated on a computer which it works with JAWS and most reader software (NAB, (2020).

    When using the NAB even with pencil and paper or computer, the scores of the test are scored online. There are three types of scoring; primary, secondary, and descriptive. Primary uses a formal T scores (M=50, SD=10), this is the most important score for understanding performance. Primary scores understood by transforming the raw score to a z score then referencing the z score multiple different normative samples (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). Secondary is focused on the percentiles by age groups and doesn’t contribute to Module Index and total NAB index scores (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). Descriptive is the last type of scores that uses cumulative percentages for overall sample (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). Descriptive scores don’t have significant reliability along with highly skewed distributions in healthy individuals ((Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). Computerized testing has made for more consistency all around, administration, able to differentiate between different neurological disorders, minimizes error, and it’s more controlled. NAB testing also uses virtual reality which gives the individual an opportunity to real life experience (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013).

    Fair and Appropriate Materials

    Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education, is a guide for professionals to provide and use tests that are fair for all test takers regardless of age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, linguistic background, and other personal characteristics (Lara Frumkin, PhD., (2020). NAB provides an online study guide for many materials you need to study for the test, along with tips to help study for exam (NAB, (2020). Resources for the NAB are only provided online, which can be an issue for some individuals that don’t own a computer or internet or might not have access to either (NAB, (2020). Resources provide terms to study, some real-life scenarios and sampling practice questions (NAB, (2020). Everything is scored online so there can’t be any bias towards soring. When testing smaller groups of individuals or sensitive data are involved, it could limit the amount of information provided (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). A concern with fair and valid testing is its interpretation of scores from the process of testing. The process could produce construct-irrelevant variance in scores that lowers or raises scores (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003).

    Other concerns that come up with NAB testing; lack of clarity in test instructions, unsuitable sampling of test content, unrelated items that are being measured, along with test response expectations or scoring criteria (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003).

    Even though there are some concerns to fair and valid testing, there is opportunity to learn for the examinee when they have been exposed to instructions or experience. This can lead to fair and valid interpretations of test scores (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). Depending on the information of the test, it can be a misinterpretation of material by different members of different groups, this can be offensive or emotionally disturbing for the examinee. To have appropriate fairness for individuals testing, administration, scoring procedures, development, and test design need to stay consistent in order to decrease barriers for a range of individuals and relevant subgroups (Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003).

    Use of Technology

    Technology improvements for NAB testing has evolved into using computers for scoring, administrating, interpretation, efficiency, reliability and is cost efficient (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013). Computer based testing has been able to obtain more information that involves behavior and cognitive findings, which helps find underlying cognitive performances (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013). Computerized testing includes algorithms for future test items based off prior test performance which allows for precise assessment of cognitive limits (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013). Algorithms also improve sensitivity to certain disorders by focuses on particular symptoms, which can improve differential diagnoses. NAB testing can diagnose a wide range of disorders including mild cognitive impairment, cognitive disorders, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and traumatic brain injury. NAB testing allows for improvement of differentiating between different neurological disorders (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013).

    Synthesis of Findings

    Major strengths that have improved over the years with NAB testing is the use of computers verses paper and pencil. Using computers have obtained supplemental cognitive and behavioral information and therefor have more comprehensive evaluations (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013). Compared to paper and pencil, computer-based testing is informative for diagnosis/treatment, improved approach to testing, response latencies, and planning (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013). Virtual reality allows for real-world performance and gain perspective on IADL performance in a safe and controlled environment. IADL performance has some limitations with self-report performance is subject to personal biases and the influence of cognitive awareness (Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013).

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    NAB testing has evolved over the years from paper and pencil to using technology to administer, score, diagnose, more controlled, minimize errors, interpretation, efficiency, reliability, and is cost-efficient. Research has shown more detailed diagnosis in cognitive and behavioral findings and has allowed for differentiating between diseases. Fairness and validity have also come a long with NAB testing due to it being more controlled and consistent.




    Robert A. PhD. & Travis White, PhD., (2020). PAR, NAB Neuropsychological Assessment Battery. Retrieved from


    Travis White, PhD. & Robert A. Stern, PhD., (2003). NAB (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery), Psychometric and Technical Manual. Retrieved from


    NAB, (2020). System Requirements. Retrieved from


    Lara Frumkin, PhD., (2020). Joint Committee on Testing Practices (JCTP), Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education. Retrieved from


    Parsey, C. M., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2013). Applications of technology in neuropsychological assessment. The Clinical neuropsychologist27(8), 1328–1361.


  • Length of paper: At least six pages (not including title page, abstract, or references).