Psychology (Horney, Murray, Erikson)

Henry Murray felt that in addition to our physiological needs, human beings have many emotional and psychological needs. Identify and describe three of Murray’s needs. How do these needs help to explain one’s personality and behaviors? Compose an assessment tool that Karen Horney and Henry Murray would use with a client. Identify some of the benefits of this tool. Are there any disadvantages? If so, explain how you may be able to overcome those challenges in this assessment tool?

 

Based on this information, develop a treatment plan for a client that is struggling with the Trust vs. Mistrust stage in Erikson’s theory of personality development. When developing the plan, be sure to include the following questions:

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* What items would you want to focus on?

* Which assessment tool would you use?

* What types of goals would be appropriate for your client?

* How will this benefit your client?

 

Summarize how you think our culture, religion, and ethnicity may impact our personality development. Point out how this information changes the treatment plans you develop.

 

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The attached file contains 3 examples posted by other students

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QUESTION

Henry Murray felt that in addition to our physiological needs, human beings have many emotional and psychological needs. Identify and describe three of Murray’s needs. How do these needs help to explain one’s personality and behaviors? Compose an assessment tool that Karen Horney and Henry Murray would use with a client. Identify some of the benefits of this tool. Are there any disadvantages? If so, explain how you may be able to overcome those challenges in this assessment tool?

Based on this information, develop a treatment plan for a client that is struggling with the Trust vs. Mistrust stage in Erikson’s theory of personality development. When developing the plan, be sure to include the following questions:

* What items would you want to focus on?

* Which assessment tool would you use?

* What types of goals would be appropriate for your client?

* How will this benefit your client?

Summarize how you think our culture, religion, and ethnicity may impact our personality development. Point out how this information changes the treatment plans you develop.

 

 

 

EXAMPLES POSTED BY OTHER STUDENTS

EXAMPLE 1:

Henry Murray explained many emotional and psychological needs a person has.  Three that I find interesting are affiliation or the need to be near and enjoyably reciprocate with another, nurturance or the need to help, console, comfort and nurse the weak, and play which is defined as the need for enjoyment and fun (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).  I believe that in general, a parent tries to reinforce happiness, comfort and enjoyment for their child from the time it is born.  By doing so, they are creating a sense of compassion for others, reinforcing to do good towards your fellow man and to enjoy life.

The TAT, or Thematic Apperception Test, is a set of ambiguous pictures presented to a person who then composes a story about the picture based upon what one sees.  From the story, ones own needs are  projected upon (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).  This assessment tool could be used for a client to discover their basic insecurities and how they perceive themselves.  By associating the story one creates through viewing the photo, it may become clear how they perceive themselves and give an understanding of their personality – whether they are trusting, outgoing, introverted, etc.

In Erikson’s Trust vs. Mistrust stage, an infant whose mother does not reply to their cries of hunger or who is rarely held, learns to mistrust the world as an adult (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).  In helping a person through mistrust issues, the counselor would have to move slowly to gain the trust of their client.  Perhaps setting a small goal of, “if you can do “x” then I will do “z” for you”.  Have the client write down positives in their life to have a foundation to build trust in would be a good place to start.  If they can see at least some positive influences or steady relationship, they would have a better chance of trusting others.

Our culture, religion and ethnicity can have a great impact on our personality development.  The area we are raised in, our socio-economic status, whether we have a religious belief or not, etc., may give one a strong set of values or an outward look of nothing but despair.  Negativity and lack of moral values, added to mistrust issues, would be more difficult to treat as there is more than one issue to be dealt with when treating a client.

Reference

Friedman, H. & Schustack, M. (2012).  Personality: Classic theories and modern research.  (5th ed.).  Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE 2:

Good morning Professor and classmates,

Three of Murray’s needs I chose are Affiliation, the need to be near and enjoyable reciprocate with another. the second I chose was Play, the need for enjoyment and fun and the third I chose was Exhibition, the need to be see and heard, to entertain and entice(Friedman and Schustack, 2012). These three needs explain a person’s behavior and personality in that it shows this person has a very trusting relationship with their parents especially their mother. In my opinion on trust vs. mistrust, it is the most important stage, it forms who the child becomes as an adult. My treatment plan for my client would include more interaction with their parents in a warm comforting environment. Alone time with each parent is equally important so that the parent can gain their child trust individually rather than just together so that the child can interact with them separately and trust them. Using Murray’s system of needs I would focus on succorance, affiliation and nurturance. I believe these three needs are important in my treatment plan for my client and their trust isssues. I do belieb=ve culture could effect my client’s trust issues but as long as the parents show the child a safe, loving, happy and fun environment then the child could see that culture is an outside effect and isn’t always influential on a child’s behavior.

Friedman, Howard S., and Miriam W. Schustack. Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research, Vitalsource for Kaplan University, 5th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions, 2013.

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE 3:

To understand the different kinds of needs of Henry Murray, it is important to understand how Murray defined what a “need” is. The term need is use by Murray to describe “a readiness to respond in a certain way under given conditions” (Friedman & Schustack, 2012, p. 276). Murray’s needs remind me of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, with different needs grouped into categories. The three needs of Murray’s I chose are the need for succorance, the need for harm-avoidance, and the need for order. These needs seem to be most applicable to a child struggling with Erikson’s trust vs. mistrust stage of personality development. Succorance is the need to seek protection or sympathy (Heffner, 2015). A child has the need to be taken care of by his or her parents and depends on his or her parents for love and protection. The need for harm-avoidance is the need to avoid pain or injury (Heffner, 2015). A child depends on his or her parents to keep him or her from things that will cause pain; when a child is old enough to understand what causes pain (like a hot stove) the child will avoid these things. The need for order is the need of a child/person for organization and neatness (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).  A child needs organization and structure, a routine, which would allow the child anticipate what is going to happen next. An assessment tool that Horney and Murray would use with a client is a type of TAT test with dolls that represent the child, mother, father, and siblings (or the family members that would apply to the child). The TAT can ask the child to create a story using these dolls and examine the interaction to help form a “thema” for the child. Murray called a combination of “needs and presses typical for an individual” as his or her thema (Friedmand & Schustack, 2012, p. 325). A treatment plan for a child with issued from the trust vs. mistrust stage would focus on the needs of succorance, harm-avoidance, and order. Using this TAT, one could look into why the child feels unloved, unprotected, vulnerable to harm, or a chaotic schedule. Perhaps the parents don’t give enough attention to the child or maybe the child doesn’t know what is going to happen from one day to the next, so the child feels he or she cannot trust his or her parents. Getting to the root of why and how the child feels can help the child focus on being able to trust others.

Chris

Reference:

Friedman, H. & Schustack, M. (2012). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (5th

ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

 

Heffner, C. (2015). Chapter 7: Section 3: Henry Murray and the TAT. AllPsych. Retrieved on June 6, 2015 from the World Wide Web:http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/murray/#.VXM1CthFDyU