How does childhood homelessness impact their mental health and effect their academic progress.

Research Question

How does childhood homelessness impact their mental health and effect their academic progress.

Part 1 This is due Feb 4th. it’s worth 50 points

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For this assignment you will write the Literature Review for your Research Proposal. This section is a review of pertinent literature related to your topic. By reviewing the literature in your chosen topic, you should demonstrate the gap, or what literature has not addressed, or perhaps addressed inadequately. This literature review demonstrates a need for your proposed research study.

Please use the following outline of the Literature Review: LiteratureReviewOutline.docxPreview the document

Please review the Exemplary Student Proposal found here: ExemplaryStudentResearchProposal.docPreview the document

The Literature Review should be 6-10 pages in length. For this section you will add on at least 5 more references to your Week 2 Reference List to make a total of at least 10 references. Remember that each reference you list in the Reference List must have at least one in-text citation in the body of the paper, and each in-text citation needs to have a corresponding reference in the Reference List. After you have at least 10 scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, you may include books or chapters from books. The majority of your sources, however, must be peer-reviewed articles from professional journals.

As with the other sections of the Research Proposal, the Review of Literature will be submitted through Turnitin with the expectation that your Similarity Score will be no higher than 10-15%.

Your paper will be evaluated on the following criteria:

Student’s literature review supported the rationale for the proposed study by clearly reinforcing the identified gap in the literature. Literature review situated the proposed study in recent, peer reviewed literature from the counseling discipline and other related disciplines as appropriate. Literature review logically aligned with proposed methodology. Literature review was structured in a way that group related topics, themes, or studies together in a logical fashion.30 points. Writing is satisfactory for graduate-level writing expectations; the paper: uses clear and appropriate language; has no errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; has good organization; follows APA documentation protocol.10 points. The project cites a variety of peer-reviewed sources to back up all claims of fact. The student draws conclusions from a variety of sources and theoretical traditions to demonstrate scholarly insight on the content area10 points.

Part 2

Its the same research topic. in the end I have to put it all together. Sample is attached.

In this section you will propose the Method for your original research designed to address your research question. This is the “recipe” section of your proposal in which you will describe the proposed details for your research plan. Be sure you include enough details so that someone could follow what you have written and replicate your research. You will NOT be implementing your research at this time. In fact, any research that is completed by a student or professor at Webster University must go through the Internal Review Board before permission is granted to proceed. Your Method section will be written in future tense and must not in any way imply you have actually conducted any part of the research. 

The Method should be 4-5 pages in length. 

Please view the outline for the Method here: MethodRevOutline.docxPreview the document

Please reread the Method section of the following Exemplary Student Paper: ExemplaryStudentResearchProposal.docPreview the document

The following sections should be included in the Method: Short Introduction, Research Question and Hypothesis, Participants, Procedures, Instrumentation, Variables, Proposed Data Analysis, and Limitations. (If you used a Qualitative or Mixed Methods design, please be sure to check with your instructor for any modifications to the above sections.)

Your Method may use sources that are included on the Reference List you have created for the Introduction and Literature Review. If you add new in-text citations, however, please be sure to include the corresponding references in the final Reference List at the end of your paper.

As with the other sections of the Research Proposal, the Method section will be submitted through Turnitin with the expectation that your Similarity Score will be no higher than 10-15%.

MANDATORY COUNSELING 1

PAGE

33

Mandatory counseling

Mandatory Mental Health Counseling for Law Enforcement Officers Exposed to Trauma

John Bertang

Webster University

COUN 5850: Research and Program Evaluation (Section OB)

March 6, 2020

Abstract

There is limited research in the area of mandatory mental health counseling for law enforcement officers who experience trauma. The culture of the profession breeds autonomy and problem solving. Asking for help is considered a sign of weakness and may perpetuate the stigma surrounding mental health assistance. This quantitative research study will attempt to determine if mandatory counseling for law enforcement officers will have a positive impact on their mental well-being, and if the stigmatization of mental health counseling is reduced through the experience of participating in counseling. This research proposal intends to survey certified police officers at a police department in a small Southern coastal city of approximately 34,000 residents. At the beginning of the 18-month study the law enforcement officers who volunteer to participate will take a survey giving self-reported responses pertaining to mental health, stigmatization, and trauma that is experienced on-duty. According to department policy, all officers who experience traumatic situations will be required to meet with the department-hired mental health professional for two counseling sessions. Upon completion, officers who are participating in the research will be offered a follow-up survey to assess the impact of the counseling on their well-being and their current feelings about the perceived stigmatization of mental health counseling. This research will compare responses from the first survey to the information collected in the second survey for those officers who participate. There are several limitations to this study including that this author is an officer employed by the agency being studied. The researcher hopes the information gathered will be able to be generalized to other law enforcement agencies and emergency service employees who experience similar traumatic experiences.

Keywords: law enforcement, mental health counseling, mandatory, trauma, well-being

Introduction

The law enforcement community faces inherently dangerous situations daily. The profession is deeply rooted in confronting traumatic situations (Landers et al., 2019). Although exposure to trauma may be considered an accepted and acknowledged hazard of the job, it is readily apparent that the negative effects of stress and trauma are having detrimental effects on officers. It is normal to experience stress in everyday life. In fact, stress can be beneficial in certain situations (Keaton, 2017) which may allow officers to perform better, create a sense of urgency to complete a project or task, act as a source of motivation, or focus more intently on the issue at hand. When stress or traumatic situations create impairment in daily functioning it should become the catalyst to seek ways to reduce, minimize, or eliminate the damaging effects it can have on the officer and the devastating wake it can create in the aftermath.

The psychosocial working environment of officers exposes them to violence, repeated confrontation, death, human suffering, and other traumatic situations which, in turn, create a thriving opportunity for them to have elevated risks of psychological problems and developmental physical issues (Price, 2017). Chopko et al. (2015) found that the severity of traumatic situations, combined with the frequency of these adverse conditions, is believed to spawn mental health issues. Additionally, because of the nature of police work, officers never know what the next call will be or when a situation will turn out badly. Because of the lack of control over the environment and the nature of potentially traumatic calls for service, stress levels remain elevated above most other professions (Landers et al., 2019).

Statement of the Problem

While it is evident that officers face frequent danger compared to the experiences of the general population, it is imperative to look at various ways to address the negative mental health outcomes as a result of performing the duties of the profession. Officers pride themselves in helping others, which is in direct conflict to asking others for help (Tsai et al., 2018). This barrier, combined with the perceived stigma of receiving mental health treatment, further impedes the officer from receiving the assistance they desperately need.

Purpose of the Research

The purpose of this research is to identify issues, offer solutions, and implement programs to mitigate this workplace deficiency in law enforcement. The ultimate purpose is to provide officers with mental health counseling after a traumatic incident and to begin lifting the stigma of this counseling.

This research is important because trauma and stress experienced by police are generally similar regardless of the department or region. Officers are regular people—members of the community. Knowing the inherent dangers and the frequency with which they will encounter crisis situations, it is imperative to examine various ways to promote and protect the mental health of our nation’s frontline heroes. The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015) noted that the physical and mental wellness of officers is critical to effectively serving the community. Trauma can breed aggression and impulsivity in officers as they perform their duties; it can also cause a delay in action or cause them to act inappropriately in a given circumstance (Price, 2017). Trust is the cornerstone of community policing; therefore officers must be mentally healthy or the ties and bridges that have been built in the community can rapidly erode.

Statistics overwhelmingly support the fact that mental health in law enforcement may be nearing a critical juncture. Officers commit suicide while at work at a rate of 3.5 times that of any other profession (Tiesman et al., 2015). While most officers’ greatest fear is to be shot and killed by a suspect, The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015) found that officers are 2.4 times more likely to commit suicide than be killed by homicide. It appears that officers are not addressing the reality that mental health may play a more significant role in their career and life.

Social Significance of Study

The social significance of this research extends well beyond the scope of local law enforcement in this author’s region. Grassi et al. (2019) conducted a 22-year study of suicide rates of Italian police officers, which revealed a higher rate than the general population. The findings from law enforcement across the globe can even translate to similar findings in the United States military. Stanley et al. (2019) found that suicide rates in the various branches of the military are elevated. The stresses and traumatic issues that law enforcement and military communities face appear to have a common thread with negative outcomes.

Although the significance of mental disorders in law enforcement is amplified compared to the general population, there is a universal stigma associated with counseling and mental health. Officers believe they would be considered weak or would face job-related consequences (Thoen et al., 2019) if they were to ask for help. Officers take pride in being autonomous, courageous, and problem solvers; this contrasts with seeking professional mental health assistance and basically admitting that they can’t handle the challenges and feelings they are experiencing.

When officers have mental health issues as a result of traumatic experiences, they may experience a decline in future work performance (Landers et al., 2019). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a prevalence rate of 3.5% in American adults (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), yet it is believed to be as much as 4 times higher in law enforcement (Bell & Eski, 2015). PTSD can result from a single event or prolonged exposure to the negative aspects of the job (Boothroyd et al., 2019). It is clear to see that a profession charged with addressing some of the worst that humanity offers has a negative outlook concerning mental health.

Perhaps even more problematic, the spouses and partners of officers are often caught in the crossfire of this mental health conundrum. The intentional career path of an officer often has unintentional consequences for those with whom they live. Those who suffer from mental disorders can’t help but affect those who love them. This is no different than a family member living with someone who has a drug or alcohol addiction. The effects can be acute and result in a gradual degradation throughout the course of a relationship or lifetime. Chopko et al. (2015) noted that police work has a detrimental influence on officers’ spouses. They also found that secondary traumatic stress that spouses experience impacts negatively, presents in various forms of unhealthy coping methods, and eventually deteriorates the family relationship. While getting officers to realize they need mental health assistance is difficult, offering assistance to their spouses has proved to be an even greater obstacle. The ripple effects of mental health are far-reaching.

The problem of mental health in law enforcement is multi-faceted. There is a lack of studies examining mental heath in the law enforcement profession (Kyron et al., 2019). There is an above average number of worker compensation and other mental health claims (Gray & Collie, 2017). The side effects and lethality of officers with mental disorders as a result of traumatic events are devastating (Kyron et al., 2019). Because of the perceived stigma, however, the topic of counseling and other psychological services is easy to brush off and defer back to the officer’s reluctance to seek assistance. As law enforcement budgets dwindle and the general demands increase, the focus is usually on acquiring more officers and getting the equipment and tools to handle the job. The focus is not on spending money to train how to identify, reduce, and handle mental health issues.

Darley and Latane (1968) conducted research, the finding of which is widely known as the bystander effect. Accordingly, the law enforcement profession realizes there is a problem, yet little is done to ameliorate the problem. Addressing mental health appears to be everyone’s problem but no specific person’s or agency’s problem to fix. The prevailing mentality is to diffuse or overlook the problem.

Knowing the effects that PTSD and exposure to traumatic incidents have on officers, coupled with officers’ reluctance to seek help, make this research practical, imperative, and personal. One cannot help but ponder how the murders, sexual assaults, mangled bodies from collision, robberies, and child abuse cases affect the psyche, relationships, and other long-term biophysical factors of police officers.

This study will identify and allocate resources to address critical incidents and various situations where officers are required to obtain mental health counseling. Educating officers during pre-service and in-service training will allow them to become more knowledgeable about the topic. Addressing mental health issues on an individual and personal level may also help the program gain traction and allow buy-in to the urgency of mental well-being. By creating written policies, there will be a well-defined protocol that makes counseling mandatory, reiterates confidentiality, and provides the gateway to further resources if needed. As officers become more aware of the impact that their chosen career has had on them, they may consider the ripple effect that executing their job-related duties has on their spouses and family life. As education increases and it becomes painstakingly obvious that these efforts should have been implemented a long time ago, it is believed that this study will spawn more resources dedicated to the mental health and well-being of officers. By addressing deficiencies and capitalizing on personal and professional development, it is believed that the collective service provided to the community by the officers charged with this awesome responsibility will improve. The far-reaching effects of positive mental health (Chopko et al., 2015) may extend to the officer’s home, spouse, children, church, and beyond.

Research Question and Hypotheses

For the purpose of this study, the following research question will be addressed:

What is the impact of mandatory mental health counseling for law enforcement officers who have experienced a traumatic event?

This research study has two directional hypotheses:

1. Mandatory mental health counseling will reduce the stigma of mental health counseling in law enforcement officers who have experienced a traumatic event.

2. Mandatory mental health counseling will have a positive impact on the mental well-being of law enforcement officers who have experienced a traumatic eve