Defination Essay: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage

SEVENTH

CANADIAN

EDITION

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WOOLFOLK

WINNE

PERRY

EDUCATIONALPSYCHOLOG

 

 

 

ANITA WOOLFOLK

The Ohio State University

SEVENTH

CANADIAN

EDITION

PHILIP H. WINNE

Simon Fraser University

NANCY PERRY

University of British Columbia

EDUCATIONALPSYCHOLOG

 

 

Pearson Canada Inc., 26 Prince Andrew Place, North York, Ontario M3C 2H4.

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approval of the publisher or the author.

ISBN 978-0-13-483221-0

1 20

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Hoy, Anita Woolfolk, 1947-, author

Educational psychology / Woolfolk, Winne, Perry. Seventh

Canadian edition.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-0-13-483221-0 (softcover)

1. Educational psychologyTextbooks. 2. Textbooks.

I. Winne, Philip H., author II. Perry, Nancy E. (Nancy

Ellen), 1962-, author III. Title.

LB1051.H69 2019 370.15 C2018-906496-

 

 

To my mother,

Marion Wieckert Pratt.

A remarkable educator,

an adventurous world traveler,

a courageous advocate for all in need,

and a wonderful guide in lifethank

you.

A.W.

In memory of missed parents,

Bill Perry and Jean and Hawley Winne.

Great teachers all!

And to family, friends, and students,

who continue to teach us the joys of life and learning.

P.H.W.

N.E.P

 

 

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

So you will know the authors a bit better, here is some information.

Anita Woolfolk was born in Fort Worth, Texas, where her mother taught child development

at TCU and her father was an early worker in the computer industry. She is a Texas Long-hornall

her degrees are from the University of Texas, Austin, the last one a PhD. After

graduating, she worked as a child psychologist in elementary and secondary schools in

15 counties of central Texas. She began her career in higher education as a professor of

educational psychology at Rutgers University, and then moved to The Ohio State University

in 1994. Today she is Professor Emerita at Ohio State. Anitas research focuses on motivation

and cognition, specifically, students and teachers sense of efficacy and teachers beliefs about

education. For many years she was the editor of Theory Into Practice, a journal that brings

the best ideas from research to practicing educators. She has published over 80 books, book

chapters, and research articles with her students and colleagues. Anita has served as vice-president

for Division K (Teaching & Teacher Education) of the American Educational

Research Association and president of Division 15Educational Psychology of the American

Psychological Association. Just before completing this edition of Educational Psychology, she

collaborated with Nancy Perry, University of British Columbia, to write the second edition of

Child Development (Pearson, 2015), a book for all those who work with and love children.

Philip H. Winne received his Ph.D. from Stanford University, accepted a position at Simon

Fraser University in 1975, and has happily worked there his entire career. He is a profes-sor

as SFU and previously served as associate dean for Graduate Studies and Research in

the Faculty of Education. His research accomplishments earned him two terms as a Tier I

Canada Research Chair in Self-Regulated Learning & Learning Technologies and election

as a fellow of the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological

Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the Canadian Psychological

Association. His research interests include self-regulated learning, metacognition, motiva-tion,

study tactics and learning strategies, adaptive software for research, and promoting

self-regulated learning. To pursue these topics, he leads a team developing state-of-the-art

software called nStudy. As students use nStudy to study online, the software collects

extensive and detailed data about how they study. He has published more than 170 schol-arly

works and served as president of the Canadian Educational Researchers Association,

the Canadian Association for Educational Psychology, and Division 15Educational Psy-chology

of the American Psychological Association. He co-edited the Handbook of Edu-cational

Psychology (second edition) with Patricia Alexander and the field-leading journal

Educational Psychologist (20012005), with Lyn Corno. He has served as Associate Editor

of the British Journal of Educational Psychology for nearly 20 years, and currently is a

member of the editorial board of seven other leading journals in the field.

Nancy Perry worked as a classroom and resource teacher in school districts in British

Columbia, Canada, before obtaining her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1996.

Today, she is a professor of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education

at the University of British Columbia (UBC). There, she teaches courses in two program

areasHuman Development, Learning, and Culture; and Special Education; and supports

students in a B.Ed. cohort that focuses on promoting self-regulated learning (SRL) in the

middle years. She is a recipient of UBCs Killam Teaching Prize and holds the Dorothy Lam

Chair in Special Education. Her research examines the role of task structures, instructional

practices, and interpersonal relationships in promoting motivation and self-regulation in

school. Related projects are profiled on her website: Seeding Success through Motivation

and Self-Regulation in Schools, http://self-regulationinschool.research.educ.ubc.ca. In addi-tion

to these teaching and research activities, Nancy has served an Associate Editor for the

Journal of Learning and Instruction, President of Division 15Educational Psychology of

the American Psychological Association, President of the Canadian Association for Educa-tional

Psychology, Member of the Executive Boards of the Canadian Association for Studies

in Education and Division 15Educational Psychology as Member-at-Large

 

 

PREFACE

Many of you reading this book are enrolled in an educational psychology course as part

of your professional preparation for teaching, counselling, speech therapy, nursing, or

psychology. The material in this text should be of interest to everyone who is concerned

about education and learning, from the kindergarten volunteer to the instructor in a

community program for adults with disabilities. No background in psychology or educa-tion

is necessary to understand this material. It is as free of jargon and technical lan-guage

as possible, and many people have worked to make this edition clear, relevant,

and interesting.

Since the first edition of Educational Psychology appeared, there have been many

exciting developments in the field. The seventh Canadian edition continues to emphasize

the educational implications and applications of research on child development, cognitive

science, learning, motivation, teaching, and assessment. Theory and practice are not sepa-rated

in the text but are considered together. The book is written to show how information

and ideas drawn from research in educational psychology can be applied to solve the

everyday problems of teaching. To help you explore the connections between research

and practice, you will find in these pages a wealth of examples, lesson segments, case

studies, guidelines, and even practical tips from experienced teachers. As you read this

book, we believe you will see the immense value and usefulness of educational psychol-ogy.

The field offers unique and crucial knowledge to any who dare to teach and to all

who love to learn.

NEW CONTENT IN THE SEVENTH CANADIAN EDITION

Across the book, there is increased coverage of a number of important topics. Some of

these include

New explorations of current research on teaching and models of expert teaching,

introduced in Chapter 1 and continued throughout the book.

Increased coverage of the brain, neuroscience, and teaching emphasized in Chapter 2

and also integrated into several other chapters.

Increased coverage of the impact of technology and virtual learning environ-ments

on the lives of students and teachers today.

Increased emphasis on diversity in todays classrooms, especially in Chapters 1

to 6. Portraits of students in educational settings make diversity real and human

for readers.

Key content changes in each chapter include the following:

Chapter 1 Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology

Our goal is that this text will provide the knowledge and skills that will enable you

to build a solid foundation for an authentic sense of teaching efficacy in every context

and for every student. There is new information about models of good teaching here

and throughout the text. Also, the section on research now examines different kinds

of qualitative and quantitative research and what you can learn from each approach

(see Table 1.2).

Chapter 2 Cognitive Development

New information on the brain, synaptic plasticity, executive functioning, and implica-tions

for teaching, including an approach based on Vygotsky called Tools of the Mind

 

 

vi PREFACE

Chapter 3 Self and Social and Moral Development

New sections on cultural differences in play, physical activity and students with

disabilities, eating disorders and the websites that promote them, self-conceptparticularly

elaborations of gender and sexual identityand Jonathan Haidts

model of moral psychology.

Chapter 4 Learner Differences and Learning Needs

New sections on nine possible multiple intelligences, autism spectrum disorders,

student drug use, and ways to identify students who are gifted and talented.

Chapter 5 Language Development, Language Diversity, and

Immigrant Education

New information on learning to read, emergent literacy and language diversity, shel-tered

instruction, and student-led conferences.

Chapter 6 Culture and Diversity

New coverage of homeless and highly mobile students, expanded coverage of pov-erty

and school achievement, opportunity gaps, and stereotype threat.

Chapter 7 Behavioural Views of Learning

Expanded coverage of teaching implications of behavioural learning.

Chapter 8 Cognitive Views of Learning

Updated coverage of working memory, developmental differences, and teaching

implications of cognitive learning theories.

Chapter 9 Complex Cognitive Processes

Updated sections on metacognition and learning strategies, creativity, and transfer,

and a new section on Paul and Elders model of critical thinking.

Chapter 10 The Learning Sciences and Constructivism

New material on inquiry learning and teaching in a digital world, including Bettys

Brainan example of a virtual learning environmentthe use of games in teaching,

and the initiative to teach computational thinking and coding.

Chapter 11 Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation

Updated coverage of self-efficacy, self-regulated learning, and new material on emo-tional

self-regulation.

Chapter 12 Motivation in Learning and Teaching

Updated treatment of self-determination theory and goal theory, expanded coverage

of helping students cope with anxiety, and new material on flow and motivation

 

 

PREFACE

Chapter 13 Creating Learning Environments

New sections on understanding your beliefs about classroom management, creating

caring relationships, bullying, restorative justice, and Marvin Marshalls views on

consequences and penalties.

Chapter 14 Teaching Every Student

Updated discussion of research on teaching, as well as a new section on understand-ing

by design.

Chapter 15 Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing

Updated material on student testing.

A CRYSTAL-CLEAR PICTURE OF THE FIELD

AND WHERE IT IS HEADED

The seventh Canadian edition maintains the lucid writing style for which the book is

renowned. The text provides accurate, up-to-date coverage of the foundational areas

within educational psychology: learning, development, motivation, teaching, and assess-ment,

combined with intelligent examination of emerging trends in the field and society

that affect student learning, such as student diversity, inclusion of students with special

learning needs, education and neuroscience, and technology.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

During the years we have worked on this book, from initial draft to this most recent revi-sion,

many people have supported the project. Without their help, this text simply could

not have been written.

Many educators contributed to this and previous editions. For recent contributions,

we give thanks to

Lisa Dack, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education

Marian Jazvac-Martek, McGill University

Anoop Gupta, University of Windsor

Ashleigh Lerch, Western University

Elsa Lo, Concordia University

Chris Mattatall, University of Lethbridge

Julie Mueller, Wilfrid Laurier University

Nancy Norman, University of the Fraser Valley

Alexa Okrainec, Brandon University

Sheila Windle, University of Ottawa

Stephanie Yamniuk, University of Winnipeg

For reviews in connection with the sixth, fifth, and fourth Canadian editions, thanks to

Ajit Bedi, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Scott Conrod, McGill University

Connie Edwards, University of Toronto

Sonja Grover, Lakehead University

Michael Harrison, University of Ottawa

Linda Lysynchuck, Laurentian University

Anne MacGregor, Douglas College

vi

 

 

viii PREFACE

Rob McTavish, Simon Fraser University

Marlene Maldonado-Esteban, University of Windsor

Carlin J. Miller, University of Windsor

John C. Nesbit, Simon Fraser University

Gene Ouellette, Mount Allison University

Krista Pierce, Red Deer College

Jeff St. Pierre, University of Western Ontario

Noella Piquette-Tomei, University of Lethbridge

Kenneth A. Pudlas, Trinity Western University

Jill Singleton-Jackson, University of Windsor

Irina Tzoneva, University of Fraser Valley

Jennifer A. Vadeboncoeur, University of British Columbia

David Young, University of Western Ontario

PHIL WINNE AND NANCY PERR

 

 

BRIEF CONTENTS

1 Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology 1

PART I STUDENTS

2 Cognitive Development 22

3 Self and Social and Moral Development 64

4 Learner Differences and Learning Needs 110

5 Language Development, Language Diversity,

and Immigrant Education 160

6 Culture and Diversity 195

PART II LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

7 Behavioural Views of Learning 232

8 Cognitive Views of Learning 266

9 Complex Cognitive Processes 302

10 The Learning Sciences and Constructivism 342

11 Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation 382

12 Motivation in Learning and Teaching 414

PART III TEACHING AND ASSESSING

13 Creating Learning Environments 457

14 Teaching Every Student 497

15 Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing 53

 

 

CONTENTS

About the Authors iv

Preface v

CHAPTER 1

LEARNING, TEACHING,

AND EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY 1

Teachers CasebookIncluding All Students: What

Would You Do? 1

Overview and Objectives 2

Learning and Teaching Today 2

Classrooms Today Are Dramatically Diverse 2

Confidence in Every Context 3

Do Teachers Make a Difference? 4

What Is Good Teaching? 5

Inside Three Classrooms 5

What Are the Concerns of Beginning Teachers? 7

The Role of Educational Psychology 8

In the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and

Teaching 8

Educational Psychology Today 8

Is It Just Common Sense? 9

Using Research to Understand and Improve

Learning 10

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Kind of Research Should

Guide Education? 13

Theories for Teaching 15

Supporting Student Learning 18

Summary 19

Teachers CasebookWhat Is an Effective Teacher? What

Would They Do? 20

CHAPTER 2

COGNITIVE

DEVELOPMENT 22

Teachers CasebookSymbols and Cymbals:

What Would You Do? 22

Overview and Objectives 23

A Definition of Development 23

Three Questions Across the Theories 24

General Principles of Development 25

The Brain and Cognitive Development 25

The Developing Brain: Neurons 26

The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex 28

Adolescent Development and the Brain 30

Putting It All Together: How the Brain Works 30

Neuroscience, Learning, and Teaching 31

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Brain-Based Education 34

Lessons for Teachers: General Principles 34

Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development 36

Influences on Development 37

Basic Tendencies in Thinking 37

Four Stages of Cognitive Development 38

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Helping Families Care for Preoperational Children 41

GUIDELINES: Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child 44

Information Processing and Neo-Piagetian Views of Cognitive

Development 45

GUIDELINES: Helping Students to Use Formal Operations 46

Limitations of Piagets Theory 47

Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective 50

The Social Sources of Individual Thinking 50

Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development 51

The Role of Language and Private Speech 52

The Zone of Proximal Development 54

Limitations of Vygotskys Theory 55

Implications of Piagets and Vygotskys Theories for

Teachers 55

Piaget: What Can We Learn? 55

Vygotsky: What Can We Learn? 57

An Example Curriculum: Tools of the Mind 58

Reaching Every Student: Teaching in the Magic Middle 59

GUIDELINES: Applying Vygotskys Ideas to Teaching 60

Cognitive Development: Lessons for Teachers 60

Summary 60

Teachers CasebookSymbols and Cymbals: What Would

They Do? 62

CHAPTER 3

SELF AND SOCIAL AND MORAL

DEVELOPMENT 64

Teachers CasebookMean Girls: What Would You Do? 64

Overview and Objectives 6

 

 

CONTENTS

Physical Development 65

Physical and Motor Development 65

GUIDELINES: Dealing with Physical Differences in the

Classroom 68

Play, Recess, and Physical Activity 68

Challenges in Physical Development 70

GUIDELINES: Supporting Positive Body Images in

Adolescents 72

Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development 72

Families 73

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Connecting with Families 76

GUIDELINES: Helping Children of Divorce 77

Peers 78

Reaching Every Student: Teacher Support 80

Teachers and Child Abuse 81

Society and Media 83

Identity and Self-Concept 84

Erikson: Stages of Individual Development 84

GUIDELINES: Encouraging Initiative and Industry 86

GUIDELINES: Supporting Identity Formation 89

Ethnic and Racial Identity 90

Self-Concept 91

Sex Differences in Self-Concept of Academic Competence 93

Self-Esteem 94

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Should Schools Do to

Encourage Students Self-Esteem? 95

Understanding Others and Moral Development 96

Theory of Mind and Intention 96

Moral Development 96

Moral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal Choices 98

Diversity in Moral Reasoning 100

Beyond Reasoning: Haidts Social Intuitionist Model of Moral

Psychology 100

Moral Behaviour 101

GUIDELINES: Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging

Cooperation 104

Personal/Social Development: Lessons for Teachers 106

Summary 106

Teachers CasebookMean Girls: What Would They Do? 108

CHAPTER 4

LEARNER DIFFERENCES AND

LEARNING NEEDS 110

Teachers CasebookIncluding Every Student: What Would

You Do? 110

Students with Sensory Impairments 148

Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders 150

Special Education and Inclusion 151

Education Laws and Policies Pertaining to Exceptional

Students 151

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Inclusion a Reasonable

Approach to Teaching Exceptional Students? 153

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Productive Conferences 154

Response to Intervention (RTI) 154

Universal Designs for Learning 156

Summary 156

Teachers CasebookIncluding Every Student: What Would

They Do? 158

Overview and Objectives 111

Language and Labelling 111

Disabilities and Handicaps 112

Person-First Language 113

Possible Biases in the Application of Labels 113

Intelligence 114

What Does Intelligence Mean? 114

Multiple Intelligences 115

Multiple Intelligences: Lessons for Teachers 118

Intelligence as a Process 118

Measuring Intelligence 119

GUIDELINES: Interpreting IQ Scores 121

Sex Differences in Intelligence 122

Learning and Thinking Styles 124

Learning Styles and Preferences 124

Beyond Either/Or 126

Students Who are Gifted and Talented 126

Who Are These Students? 127

Identifying and Teaching Students Who

Are Gifted 129

Students with Learning Challenges 132

Neuroscience and Learning Challenges 132

Students with Learning Disabilities 133

Students with Hyperactivity and Attention

Disorders 137

Lessons for Teachers: Learning Disabilities

and ADHD 139

Students with Language and Communication

Disorders 140

Students with Emotional or Behavioural

Disorders 141

Students with Developmental Disabilities 144

Students with Physical Disabilities and Chronic

Health Concerns 145

GUIDELINES: Teaching Students with Developmental

Disabilities 146

x

 

 

xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER 5

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT,

LANGUAGE DIVERSITY, AND

IMMIGRANT EDUCATION 160

Teachers CasebookSupporting Language Diversity in the

Classroom: What Would You Do? 160

Overview and Objectives 161

The Development of Language 161

What Develops? Language and Cultural Differences 161

When and How Does Language Develop? 162

Emergent Literacy 165

Emergent Literacy and Bilingual Children 167

GUIDELINES: Supporting Language and Promoting

Literacy 168

Diversity in Language Development 168

Dual-Language Development 169

Signed Languages 172

What Is Involved in Being Bilingual? 172

Contextualized and Academic Language 173

GUIDELINES: Promoting Language Learning 175

Dialect Differences in the Classroom 175

Dialects 176

Genderlects 177

Teaching Students and English Language Learners 177

Immigrants and Refugees 178

Classrooms Today 179

Four Student Profiles 179

Generation 1.5: Students in Two Worlds 180

Bilingual Education and English Learners 181

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Is the Best Way to Teach

English Language Learners? 182

Sheltered Instruction 184

Affective and Emotional/Social Considerations 186

GUIDELINES: Providing Emotional Support and Increasing

Self-Esteem for English Language Learners 187

Working with Families: Using the Tools

of the Culture 188

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Welcoming All Families 189

Challenges: English Language Learners with Disabilities and

Special Gifts 190

English Language Learners with Disabilities 190

Reaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness

in Bilingual Students 191

Summary 192

Teachers CasebookCultures Clash in the Classroom: What

Would They Do? 193

CHAPTER 6

CULTURE AND

DIVERSITY 195

Teachers CasebookWhite Girls Club: What Would

You Do? 195

Overview and Objectives 196

Todays Diverse Classrooms 196

Culture and Group Membership 196

Meet Four Students 198

Cautions about Interpreting

Cultural Differences 200

Economic and Social Class Differences 201

Social Class and SES 201

Extreme Poverty: Homeless and Highly

Mobile Students 202

Poverty and School Achievement 202

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Tracking an Effective

Strategy? 205

GUIDELINES: Teaching Students Who Live in

Poverty 206

Ethnicity and Race Differences in Teaching

and Learning 206

Terms: Ethnicity and Race 206

Ethnic and Racial Differences

in School Achievement 207

The Legacy of Discrimination 208

Stereotype Threat 212

Gender in Teaching and Learning 214

Sex and Gender 214

Gender Roles 216

Gender Bias in Curriculum 218

Gender Bias in Teaching 218

GUIDELINES: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching 219

Multicultural Education: Creating Culturally

Compatible Classrooms 220

Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 221

Fostering Resilience 223

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Building Learning Communities 224

Diversity in Learning 225

Lessons for Teachers: Teaching Every Student 227

GUIDELINES: Culturally Relevant Teaching 229

Summary 229

Teachers CasebookWhite Girls Club: What

Would They Do? 23

 

 

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 7

BEHAVIOURAL VIEWS OF

LEARNING 232

Teachers CasebookSick of Class: What Would

You Do? 232

Overview and Objectives 233

Understanding Learning 233

Neuroscience of Behavioural Learning 234

Learning Is Not Always What It Seems 234

Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity

and Classical Conditioning 236

GUIDELINES: Applying Classical Conditioning 237

Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses 237

Types of Consequences 238

Reinforcement Schedules 240

Antecedents and Behaviour Change 242

Putting It All Together to Apply Operant Conditioning:

Applied Behaviour Analysis 243

Methods for Encouraging Behaviours 244

GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Praise

Appropriately 245

GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Encouraging

Positive Behaviours 247

Contingency Contracts, Token Reinforcement, and Group

Consequences 248

Token Reinforcement Systems 249

Handling Undesirable Behaviour 251

GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using

Punishment 253

Reaching Every Student: Severe Behaviour Problems 253

Contemporary Applications: Functional Behavioural

Assessment, Positive Behaviour Supports,

and Self-Management 254

Discovering the Why: Functional Behavioural

Assessments 255

Positive Behaviour Supports 256

Self-Management 258

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Applying Operant Conditioning: Student

Self-Management 259

Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms 260

Beyond Behaviourism: Banduras Challenge

and Observational Learning 260

Criticisms of Behavioural Methods 261

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Students Be Rewarded

for Learning? 262

Ethical Issues 263

Behavioural Approaches: Lessons for Teachers 263

Summary 264

Teachers CasebookSick of Class: What Would

They Do? 265

CHAPTER 8

COGNITIVE VIEWS OF

LEARNING 266

Teachers CasebookRemembering the Basics: What Would

You Do? 266

Overview and Objectives 267

Elements of the Cognitive Perspective 267

Comparing Cognitive and Behavioural Views 267

The Brain and Cognitive Learning 268

The Importance of Knowledge in Cognition 269

Cognitive Views of Memory 269

Sensory Memory 270

Attention and Teaching 274

Working Memory 274

GUIDELINES: Gaining and Maintaining Attention 275

Cognitive Load and Retaining Information 278

Individual Differences in Working Memory 280

Long-Term Memory 282

Capacity, Duration, and Contents of

Long-Term Memory 282

Explicit Memories: Semantic and Episodic 284

Implicit Memories 288

Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory 289

Individual Differences in Long-Term Memory 290

Teaching for Deep, Long-Lasting Knowledge: Basic Principles

and Applications 290

Constructing Declarative Knowledge: Making Meaningful

Connections 290

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Organizing Learning 292

Reaching Every Student: Make It Meaningful 293

Development of Procedural Knowledge 296

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Whats Wrong

with Memorizing? 297

GUIDELINES: Helping Students Understand and

Remember 298

Summary 299

Teachers CasebookRemembering the Basics: What Would

They Do? 300

xii

 

 

xiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER 9

COMPLEX COGNITIVE

PROCESSES 302

Teachers CasebookUncritical Thinking: What Would

You Do? 302

Overview and Objectives 303

Metacognition 304

Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation 304

Individual Differences in Metacognition 305

Lessons for Teachers: Developing Metacognition 305

Learning Strategies 307

Being Strategic about Learning 307

Visual Tools for Organizing 310

Reading Strategies 312

Applying Learning Strategies 313

GUIDELINES: Becoming an Expert Student 314

Reaching Every Student: Learning Strategies for Struggling

Students 314

Problem Solving 315

Identifying: Problem Finding 316

Defining Goals and Representing the Problem 317

Searching for Possible Solution Strategies 321

Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back 322

Factors That Hinder Problem Solving 323

Expert Knowledge and Problem Solving 324

GUIDELINES: Applying Problem Solving 325

Creativity: What It is and Why It Matters 326

Assessing Creativity 327

OK, but So What: Why Does Creativity Matter? 327

What Are the Sources of Creativity? 327

Creativity in the Classroom 329

The Big C: Revolutionary Innovation 329

GUIDELINES: Applying and Encouraging Creativity 330

Critical Thinking and Argumentation 331

One Model of Critical Thinking: Paul and Elder 332

Applying Critical Thinking in Specific Subjects 333

Argumentation 333

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Schools Teach Critical

Thinking and Problem Solving? 334

Teaching for Transfer 335

The Many Views of Transfer 336

Teaching for Positive Transfer 336

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Promoting Transfer 339

Summary 339

Teachers CasebookUncritical Thinking: What Would

They Do? 341

CHAPTER 10

THE LEARNING SCIENCES AND

CONSTRUCTIVISM 342

Teachers CasebookLearning to Cooperate: What Would

You Do? 342

Overview and Objectives 343

The Learning Sciences 343

What Are the Learning Sciences? 343

Basic Assumptions of the Learning Sciences 344

Embodied Cognition 345

Cognitive and Social Constructivism 345

Constructivist Views of Learning 346

How Is Knowledge Constructed? 349

Knowledge: Situated or General? 350

Common Elements of Constructivist Student-Centred

Teaching 350

Applying Constructivist Perspectives 352

Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning 353

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are Inquiry

and Problem-Based Learning Effective

Teaching Approaches? 356

Cognitive Apprenticeships and Reciprocal

Teaching 358

Collaboration and Cooperation 359

Tasks for Cooperative Learning 361

Preparing Students for Cooperative

Learning 362

Designs for Cooperation 365

Reaching Every Student: Using Cooperative

Learning Wisely 367

GUIDELINES: Using Cooperative Learning 368

Dilemmas of Constructivist Practice 369

Service Learning 370

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Service Learning 371

Learning in a Digital World 372

Technology and Learning 372

Developmentally Appropriate Computer Activities

for Young Children 375

Computers and Older Students 376

GUIDELINES: Using Computers 377

GUIDELINES: Supporting the Development

of Media Literacy 379

Summary 379

Teachers CasebookLearning to Cooperate: What Would

They Do? 38

 

 

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 11

SOCIAL COGNITIVE

VIEWS OF LEARNING

AND MOTIVATION 382

Teachers CasebookFailure to Self-Regulate: What Would

You Do? 382

Overview and Objectives 383

Social Cognitive Theory 383

A Self-Directed Life: Albert Bandura 383

Beyond Behaviourism 384

Triarchic Reciprocal Causality 385

Modelling: Learning by Observing Others 386

Elements of Observational Learning 387

Observational Learning in Teaching 388

GUIDELINES: Using Observational Learning 390

Self-Efficacy and Agency 390

Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem 391

Sources of Self-Efficacy 392

Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching 392

GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Efficacy 394

Teachers Sense of Efficacy 394

Self-Regulated Learning 395

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are High Levels of Teacher

Efficacy Beneficial? 396

What Influences Self-Regulation? 397

Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Agency 399

An Individual Example of Self-Regulated Learning 400

Two Classrooms 401

Technology and Self-Regulation 402

Reaching Every Student: Families and Self-Regulation 403

Another Approach to Self-Regulation: Cognitive

Behaviour Modification 403

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Supporting Self-Regulation at Home

and in School 403

Emotional Self-Regulation 406

Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated

Learning 406

GUIDELINES: Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation 407

Complex Tasks 408

Control 408

Self-Evaluation 409

Collaboration 410

Bringing It All Together: Theories of Learning 410

Summary 412

Teachers CasebookFailure to Self-Regulate: What Would

They Do? 413

CHAPTER 12

MOTIVATION IN LEARNING

AND TEACHING 414

Teachers CasebookMotivating Students When Resources

Are Thin: What Would You Do? 414

Overview and Objectives 415

What Is Motivation? 415

Meeting Some Students 416

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 416

Five General Approaches to Motivation 418

Needs 420

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 420

Self-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy,

and Relatedness 421

Needs: Lessons for Teachers 423

GUIDELINES: Supporting Self-Determination and

Autonomy 424

Goal Orientations 424

Types of Goals and Goal Orientations 425

Feedback, Goal Framing, and Goal Acceptance 428

Goals: Lessons for Teachers 429

Beliefs and Self-Perceptions 429

Beliefs about Knowing: Epistemological Beliefs 429

Beliefs about Ability 430

Beliefs about Causes and Control: Attribution Theory 431

Beliefs about Self-Worth 433

GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Worth 435

Beliefs and Attributions: Lessons for Teachers 435

Interests, Curiosity, Emotions, and Anxiety 435

Tapping Interests 436

Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity 437

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Does Making Learning Fun Make

for Good Learning? 438

GUIDELINES: Building on Students Interests and

Curiosity 439

Flow 439

Emotions and Anxiety 440

Reaching Every Student: Coping with Anxiety 442

Curiosity, Interests, and Emotions: Lessons

for Teachers 443

GUIDELINES: Coping with Anxiety 444

Motivation to Learn in School: On Target 444

Tasks for Learning 445

Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing

Accomplishment 447

Grouping, Evaluation, and Time 448

x

 

 

xvi CONTENTS

Diversity in Motivation 449

Lessons for Teachers: Strategies to Encourage

Motivation 451

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Motivation to Learn 453

Summary 454

Teachers CasebookMotivating Students When Resources

Are Thin: What Would They Do? 456

CHAPTER 13

CREATING LEARNING

ENVIRONMENTS 457

Teachers CasebookBullies and Victims: What Would

You Do? 457

Overview and Objectives 458

The What and Why of Classroom Management 458

The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation 461

The Goals of Classroom Management 462

Creating a Positive Learning Environment 464

Some Research Results 464

Routines and Rules Required 465

GUIDELINES: Establishing Class Routines 466

Planning Spaces for Learning 469

GUIDELINES: Designing Learning Spaces 470

Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class 471

Creating a Learning Community 472

Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning 473

Encouraging Engagement 473

GUIDELINES: Keeping Students Engaged 474

Prevention Is the Best Medicine 474

Withitness 475

Caring Relationships: Connections with School 476

Dealing with Discipline Problems 477

GUIDELINES: Creating Caring Relationships 478

Stopping Problems Quickly 478

GUIDELINES: Imposing Penalties 479

Bullying and Cyberbullying 480

Special Problems with Secondary Students 483

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Zero Tolerance a Good

Idea? 484

GUIDELINES: Handling Potentially Explosive Situations 485

The Need for Communication 486

Message SentMessage Received 486

Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It? 486

Counselling: The Students Problem 487

CHAPTER 14

TEACHING EVERY

STUDENT 497

Teachers CasebookReaching and Teaching Every Student:

What Would You Do? 497

Overview and Objectives 498

Research on Teaching 498

Characteristics of Effective Teachers 499

Teachers Knowledge 499

Recent Research on Teaching 500

The First Step: Planning 501

Research on Planning 502

Objectives for Learning 503

Flexible and Creative PlansUsing Taxonomies 504

Planning From a Constructivist Perspective 506

GUIDELINES: Using Instructional Objectives 506

Teaching Approaches 507

Direct Instruction 507

Seatwork and Homework 511

GUIDELINES: Teaching Effectively 512

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Homework a Valuable

Use of Time? 513

Questioning and Discussion 514

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Homework 514

Fitting Teaching to Your Goals 518

Putting It All Together: Understanding by Design 518

GUIDELINES: Productive Group Discussions 519

Differentiated Instruction 521

Within-Class and Flexible Grouping 521

GUIDELINES: Using Flexible Grouping 522

Adaptive Teaching 522

Reaching Every Student: Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive

Classrooms 524

Technology and Differentiation 524

Mentoring Students as a Way of Differentiating Teaching 526

Confrontation and Assertive Discipline 488

Reaching Every Student: Peer Mediation and Negotiation 490

Research on Management Approaches 491

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Creating a Positive Classroom Environment 492

Diversity: Culturally Responsive Management 492

Summary 493

Teachers CasebookBullies and Victims: What Would

They Do? 49

 

 

CONTENTS

GUIDELINES: Teachers as Mentors 526

Teacher Expectations 527

Two Kinds of Expectation Effects 527

Sources of Expectations 527

Do Teachers Expectations Really Affect Students

Achievement? 528

GUIDELINES: Avoiding the Negative Effects of

Teacher Expectations 530

Summary 530

Teachers CasebookReaching and Teaching Every Student:

What Would They Do? 532

CHAPTER 15

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT,

GRADING, AND STANDARDIZED

TESTING 534

Teachers CasebookGiving Meaningful Grades: What Would

You Do? 534

Overview and Objectives 535

Basics of Assessment 535

Measurement and Assessment 536

Assessing the Assessments: Reliability and Validity 538

Classroom Assessment: Testing 541

Using the Tests from Textbooks 542

Objective Testing 542

Essay Testing 543

GUIDELINES: Writing Objective Test Items 544

Authentic Classroom Assessments 546

Portfolios and Exhibitions 546

Evaluating Portfolios and Performances 547

GUIDELINES: Creating Portfolios 549

GUIDELINES: Developing a Rubric 550

Informal Assessments 551

Grading 553

Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced

Grading 553

Effects of Grading on Students 554

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Children

Be Held Back? 556

Grades and Motivation 557

Beyond Grading: Communicating with Families 557

GUIDELINES: Using Any Grading System 558

Standardized Testing 558

Types of Scores 558

Interpreting Standardized Test Reports 562

Accountability and High-Stakes Testing 565

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES:

Conferences and Explaining Test Results 566

Reaching Every Student: Helping Students with Disabilities

Prepare for High-Stakes Tests 568

GUIDELINES: Preparing Yourself and Your Students

for Testing 569

Lessons for Teachers: Quality Assessment 570

Summary 570

Teachers CasebookGiving Meaningful Grades: What Would

They Do? 572

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Name Index N-1

Subject Index S-1

xvi

 

 

SPECIAL FEATURES

GUIDELINES

Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child 44

Helping Students to Use Formal Operations 46

Applying Vygotskys Ideas to Teaching 60

Dealing with Physical Differences in the Classroom 68

Supporting Positive Body Images in Adolescents 72

Helping Children of Divorce 77

Encouraging Initiative and Industry 86

Supporting Identity Formation 89

Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation 104

Interpreting IQ Scores 121

Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities 146

Supporting Language and Promoting Literacy 168

Promoting Language Learning 175

Providing Emotional Support and Increasing Self-Esteem for

English Language Learners 187

Teaching Students Who Live in Poverty 206

Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching 219

Culturally Relevant Teaching 229

Applying Classical Conditioning 237

Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Praise Appropriately 245

Applying Operant Conditioning: Encouraging Positive

Behaviours 247

Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Punishment 253

Gaining and Maintaining Attention 275

Helping Students Understand and Remember 298

Becoming an Expert Student 314

Applying Problem Solving 325

Applying and Encouraging Creativity 330

Using Cooperative Learning 368

Using Computers 377

Supporting the Development of Media Literacy 379

Using Observational Learning 390

Encouraging Self-Efficacy 394

Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation 407

Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy 424

Encouraging Self-Worth 435

Building on Students Interests and Curiosity 439

Coping with Anxiety 444

Establishing Class Routines 466

Designing Learning Spaces 470

Keeping Students Engaged 474

Creating Caring Relationships 478

Imposing Penalties 479

Handling Potentially Explosive Situations 485

Using Instructional Objectives 506

Teaching Effectively 512

Productive Group Discussions 519

Using Flexible Grouping 522

Teachers as Mentors 526

Avoiding the Negative Effects of Teacher Expectations 530

Writing Objective Test Items 544

Creating Portfolios 549

Developing a Rubric 550

Using Any Grading System 558

Preparing Yourself and Your Students for Testing 569

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY

PARTNERSHIPS GUIDELINES

Helping Families Care for Preoperational Children 41

Connecting with Families 76

Productive Conferences 154

Welcoming All Families 189

Building Learning Communities 224

Applying Operant Conditioning: Student Self-Management 259

Organizing Learning 292

Promoting Transfer 339

Service Learning 371

Supporting Self-Regulation at Home and in School 403

Motivation to Learn 453

Creating a Positive Classroom Environment 492

Homework 514

Conferences and Explaining Test Results 566

POINT/COUNTERPOINT

What Kind of Research Should Guide Education? 13

Brain-Based Education 34

What Should Schools Do to Encourage Students

Self-Esteem? 95

Is Inclusion a Reasonable Approach to Teaching Exceptional

Students? 153

What Is the Best Way to Teach English Language

Learners? 182

Is Tracking an Effective Strategy? 205

Should Students Be Rewarded for Learning? 262

Whats Wrong with Memorizing? 297

Should Schools Teach Critical Thinking and Problem

Solving? 334

Are Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning Effective Teaching

Approaches? 356

Are High Levels of Teacher Efficacy Beneficial? 396

Does Making Learning Fun Make for Good Learning? 438

Is Zero Tolerance a Good Idea? 484

Is Homework a Valuable Use of Time? 513

Should Children Be Held Back? 55

 

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