Coding Methods


Must be familiar with these four coding methods (In Vivo, Process, Values, or Emotion Coding) and qualitative research.  Must review the articles to code, find the themes   Please note this assignment does not involve any software. This is to be done manually using the coding schemes within the textbook in Ch. 15.

1. First article- Your goal is to condense the interview from 1,501 words to about 500 words. This should be a summary of the transcript, not just repeating the same words, condensing to 500 words.

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2. Second article-Choose a section of about 300 words from the interview transcript you selected.

3. Consider which two of the following four coding methods (In Vivo, Process, Values, or Emotion Coding) would be most appropriate for analyzing the text.

4.Code the text using each method you selected. Note: You must code the selected section of text twice—once for each method you choose.

5.Compare the results and prepare a 150- to 300-word summary discussing how the different coding methods employed helped reinforc

Saldaña, Qualitative Research

SAGE Publishing, 2018

RES/724: Qualitative Methods And Design

Wk 3 – Analysis Exercise

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Assignment Content


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Complete Parts 1 and 2 below. Remember there are two parts – use headings to present each part.

Remember to include a title page with your name, date and name of assignment. Remember to include citations (at least 3) from your readings to support the information you include in the worksheet and add a reference list to support the citations. Citations and references are to follow APA 7th ed.

Note: Please note this assignment does not involve any software. This is to be done manually using the coding schemes within your textbook in Ch. 15.

Part 1: Insert headings for each section noted below to present an organize flow of your discussion.

0. Download the “Sarah: Diabetes Interview” transcript from the Saldaña and Omasta (2018) Student Resources webpage.

0. Read the transcript beginning with the question, “Going back to how you learned about diabetes, what sources did you learn about the condition from? Where did you learn about diabetes once you were diagnosed?” on page 3. Read the section a second time. This time, look for specific words that are repeated or stand out. List the specific words you identified. When you think about coding you are looking for overall themes. What specific words provide meaning of the transcript? Not all words—specific ones.

0. Condense the transcript beginning with the question, “Going back to how you learned about diabetes, what sources did you learn about the condition from? Where did you learn about diabetes once you were diagnosed?” on page 3 and continuing through the end. Your goal is to condense the interview from 1,501 words to about 500 words. This should be a summary of the transcript, not just repeating the same words, condensing to 500 words.

Part 2: Insert headings for each section noted below to present an organize flow of your discussion.

0. Download one of the transcripts from the Saldaña and Omasta (2018) Student Resources webpage.

0. Choose a section of about 300 words from the interview transcript you selected.

0. Consider which two of the following four coding methods (In Vivo, Process, Values, or Emotion Coding) would be most appropriate for analyzing the text.

0. Code the text using each method you selected. Note: You must code the selected section of text twice—once for each method you choose.

0. Compare the results and prepare a 150- to 300-word summary discussing how the different coding methods employed helped reinforce each other or provided divergent analytic insights.

Provide the actual text you are coding and how you coded it. Remember to cite and reference the sources for coding. 

Submit your assignment in a word document.









Interview Transcripts

Interview with Sarah (Pseudonym)

Selected Data from Pre-interview Survey

Participant ID: A-67

Pseudonym: Sarah

Diabetes Type: Type 1

Gender: Female

Age: 33

Age Diagnosed: 27

Interview Transcript (Full)


INTERVIEWER: Hello, my name is Matt. Thank you for taking the time to talk to me today. Before we begin, do you have any questions about the informed consent form that you completed earlier?


SARAH: No, thank you.


INTERVIEWER: To be sure that we have an accurate record of today’s conversation, I am going to supplement my notes by audio-recording our interview, is this okay?




INTERVIEWER: Thank you. Today is March 26, 2015 at 4:30 p.m., and I am speaking with Sarah. Thank you for taking the time to talk to me today. I am going to be asking you a few general questions. If there is anything you do not feel comfortable answering or that you do not know the answer to, that is not a problem; just let me know, and we can skip that question.


SARAH: Excellent.


INTERVIEWER: First, in your own words, how would you describe diabetes to someone with no experience and limited knowledge of the condition?


SARAH: So, Type I diabetes is when your pancreas no longer makes insulin, and you need insulin to open up your cells to allow sugar to be processed by your cells. So if you don’t have insulin, your cells can’t process sugar, and basically you kind of end up where you don’t have any energy, and it affects your brain, and that sort of a thing. So you have to take insulin. They have synthetic insulin you can take, so you sort of have to operate as your own pancreas to administer insulin to yourself, to process food and to get energy.


INTERVIEWER: Thank you. You indicated you were diagnosed with diabetes six years ago at age 33…




INTERVIEWER: What do you recall (if anything) knowing about diabetes before you were diagnosed?


SARAH: I knew very little about it. So—yeah, I’d—Typically, in the past, it’d be something you’d be diagnosed with as a child or in adolescence, so I knew, you know, that it was something people had, and you had to take shots, but that was about all I knew about it.


INTERVIEWER: How do you recall feeling and reacting when you were first diagnosed with diabetes? What questions did you have?


SARAH: I was—First I was relieved because it explained a lot of the—unusual sort of feelings I had been having. The usual symptoms, you know.


INTERVIEWER: What were some of those feelings or symptoms?


SARAH: I was losing a ton of weight, I was going to the bathroom all the time, I was constantly thirsty—I had all the classic symptoms, and I was really tired. So, all of a sudden, all of that made sense. And yeah, it was a little bit of a learning curve. I had a lot to learn. But it was also—so yeah. It was unexpected, but not devastating, or anything like that.


INTERVIEWER: What were some the questions you remember having when you first learned you had diabetes?


SARAH: My first question was, so what is the treatment going to be? Are there any, sort of, long-term negative effects? Those were sort of the main—the main questions.


INTERVIEWER: What did you learn about those questions? The treatment and any long-term negative effects?


SARAH: I learned that it’s pretty easy; it’s a pretty treatable disease. And basically, you have to learn how to manage how much insulin you need to take based on your food, so you learn how many carbs—you have to learn to count how many carbs are in any meal you eat. Basically, you also learn it’s very treatable and that you just—if you eat a healthy diet and exercise, it’s pretty easy to keep a handle on. It’s not a particularly disruptive disease, at least in my experience. And then, long-term effects are if you don’t take care of it—yeah, you’ll have long-term effects. You can go blind, you can get neuropathy where you can’t feel your fingers or toes, and that can be dangerous if you don’t take care of it. Basically, it’s just a disease you need to keep on top of.


INTERVIEWER: How do you learn to do some of the things, like counting carbohydrates?


SARAH: So, there’s all kind of books that you can get that give you the carb counts of basic foods, fast foods, those sorts of things. Then you just get really good at reading labels. Luckily, there’s labels on pretty much everything. And then, after a couple of months, you pretty much—I’ve discovered most people eat the same things most of the time. When you’re not eating the same things, you can always look it up, and there’s all kinds of apps on phones now, and stuff. So it’s pretty easy to look things up and develop a sort of working knowledge of how many carbs there are and stuff. It takes time. It’s doable.


INTERVIEWER: You mentioned maintaining a healthy diet and exercise. Are those things you have to make changes in your life to accommodate?


SARAH: No. I was already pretty good about getting exercise, and then, like everybody else, I go through phases where I’m lazier than others, but on the whole that wasn’t necessarily a big change.


INTERVIEWER: Going back to how you learned about diabetes, what sources did you learn about the condition from? Where did you learn about diabetes once you were diagnosed?


SARAH: So, when I got diagnosed, the doctor’s office and the hospital gave me a big pack of, you know, “Your first year with diabetes.” “Tips about diabetes.” There’s a lot of great websites. The American Diabetes Association has a great website. There’s a—Shoot. I think it’s called Juvenile Diabetes Research—has a really good website. And they refer you. They have all kinds of exhaustive lists on information from the website and books you can read. And then there’s—American Diabetes puts out a magazine called Diabetes Forecast, and you can get all kinds of information there. Finding information was pretty easy.


INTERVIEWER: How many of those resources do you think you actually looked at when you were…


SARAH: Did I look at? A lot of them, just because I’m academic, so you know, I do the research. So, I would say for sure the American Diabetes website and the one that starts with a “J” that I can’t remember off the top of my head. And then there were a couple of really good books. I looked at one that had a really good title called, like, Being Your Own Pancreas, or something like that. And then there’s a Diabetes for Dummies book. My mom also loaded me up with books. So, yeah, I had no end to books. In fact, there were almost too many of these sources. You reach a certain point where you—they’re all sort of repeating the same things and answering the same questions.


INTERVIEWER: Actually, brings me to my next question. Do you ever recall receiving conflicting information from different sources?


SARAH: Nope. It was pretty consistent across the board. The thing I found to be wary of were there’s a lot of websites I found that were support group websites where you’d get people talking their own experiences, and sometimes those could get a little questionable, sometimes. Again, those are just individuals, not doctors, talking about it, so I kind of steered clear of some of those. But yeah, on the whole it was consistent, reliable, and yeah.


INTERVIEWER: In your experience, how much do people who do not have diabetes understand about the condition?


SARAH: I find it varies. It’s a little bit confusing because there’s Type I diabetes and Type II diabetes, and there’s not a lot of understanding what the difference is. To be honest, since I don’t have Type II, I’m not sure I even understand Type II, though Type II is often caused by, you know, if you’re overweight, or you don’t exercise, or you’re older. That’s where Type II is more associated with that. So there’s confusion that there are different types, and some people think that if you have diabetes you can’t ever eat any sugar. That seems to be the other big misconception. You can eat sugar. You just have to dose, give yourself more insulin if you eat a lot of sugar. And yeah, like any person should be eating a ton of sugar anyway. So that seems to be the main—I think people know more about it, but what they know about is Type II, which is different from Type I.


INTERVIEWER: What are some different ways that people react if they find out you have diabetes?


SARAH: They’re usually afraid about dietary restrictions, or they don’t want to give me something that I can’t eat. That’s usually the reaction I get. “I’m so sorry. I served you dessert with dinner.” But, yeah I’m pretty—I don’t have any food restrictions. I just have to just know how many carbs are in something, so that’s usually the main concern.


INTERVIEWER: How do you respond to these reactions?


SARAH: I usually just try to put them at ease, you know. It’s ultimately my responsibility to take care of it, not you. And if I eat sugar I’m not going to die, so that kind of thing.


INTERVIEWER: Since you were diagnosed six years ago, are there any ways in which diabetes has affected the way you live your life?


SARAH: Yeah, I just have to be more aware of what I eat, is the main concern. You know, the main thing you have to be worried about is having a low blood sugar. That’s when you can have effects, and that can affect your driving, and it can affect your judgment, and that sort of thing. I just have to make sure I always have a snack in my bag to ward off—luckily, if you have a low blood sugar, all you have to do is eat something with carbs in it, so it’s really easy to treat. Those would be sort of—yeah, being aware of food, and always having a snack.


INTERVIEWER: Have there been any other tangible tasks that are part of your life that weren’t before?


SARAH: Yeah, again, it’s mostly just I have to be aware, double check my blood sugar if I’m going to go exercise really strenuously or if I’m going on a long roadtrip, or something. It’s just making sure I check my sugar level.


INTERVIEWER: How do you do that?


SARAH: You just stick your finger and draw some blood. And then you’ve got this blood sugar reader that you have to test. So you’ve always got your little testers with you. So, I guess you have to be a little more organized and aware, which is a challenge for me as a disorganized person. Again, it’s a pretty manageable disease.


INTERVIEWER: Do you imagine that your life would be significantly different if you didn’t have diabetes, or do you think that it would be fairly similar?


SARAH: It would be pretty similar. The one thing it does is that it’s another kick to the butt to eat healthy and be active, and that sort of thing, so I’m probably better about that than if I didn’t, but I wouldn’t say it’s super—that it changed my life in radical ways.


INTERVIEWER: Is there anything you think the general public does not know about diabetes, or living with diabetes, that they should?


SARAH: I think it’s probably good to know about the dangers of having a low because sometimes if I’m having a low blood sugar I can’t always tell. The people who I spend a lot of time with, if I’m going on a trip or something, I’ll usually alert them to what the—but I don’t think that’s something the general public needs to know. Type II diabetes, it’s more important for people to have an awareness of, you know, not eating a lot of sugar and trying to be generally active, and I think with Type II it’s a lot more important because that’s something—No one knows what causes Type I. It’s sort of luck of the draw. It can’t be avoided, but Type II can be avoided. So that one I think is a little bit more important for the public to be aware of.


INTERVIEWER: Is there any specific information that you think would be useful for people to know?


SARAH: And I think it’s stuff that’s out there already, you know. Like, don’t eat a ton of sugar, and, you know, try to be active. All that sort of stuff that goes with being a healthy person. And I think that there’s—I think that people have a pretty good awareness about, you know, that those are things to avoid. So yeah, once you get Type I, if you get Type I, it’s pretty easy, like I said. It’s pretty easy to educate yourself about that.


INTERVIEWER: Thanks very much. My last question is: is there anything else you would like to share about diabetes?


SARAH: No. I guess it’s more of an issue with little kids who have Type I diabetes because, once again, there are so many other factors that come into play with—Again, if you’re teaching or babysitting or something, just knowing how to treat a low, or things like that. Those things are more important with little kids because at a certain point you’re old enough where, you know, it’s your own responsibility, but where you’re a kid I think it’s, maybe a little bit, you’re not entirely responsible for all of the things that are happening. That’s a whole different ballgame. Not one I really have experience with. I don’t have kids with diabetes. I can just imagine it’s a tougher ballgame. That’s probably it.


INTERVIEWER: Thank you so much for taking the time to talk with me today. I and everyone on our research team really appreciate your help. If you have any questions in the future, please feel free to contact us using the information on the paperwork we gave you earlier. Thank you again!


SARAH: Thank you.







































Interview with Colin (Pseudonym)


INTERVIEWER: Today is March 31, 2015. It’s 12:07 p.m., and I’m speaking with Colin. Thank you for taking the time to talk to me. First, can you tell me a little bit about your employer? What line of business were they in? What kind of goods or services did they offer their customers or patrons?


COLIN: So I worked for a movie theatre, for a little bit over five years, split up of course. It was [Company A]. We sold popcorn, drinks, candy. We sold movie tickets. We even had a restaurant attached to it that sold burgers and anything in between.


INTERVIEWER: To the best of your knowledge, how big was your employer, based on the number of people that they employed at your specific location?


COLIN: There were probably about forty other employees. It was a pretty big movie theatre. We had seven assistant managers and then, of course, the general manager.


INTERVIEWER: And then the forty includes everyone else that worked there?


COLIN: Yeah, any janitor, cleaner, box office worker, concessions, restaurant worker.


INTERVIEWER: Did they have any other locations as well, besides the one that you worked at?


COLIN: [Company A] has movie theatres throughout America, but the general manager just oversaw the actual movie theatre.


INTERVIEWER: What was your specific role with the company? What sort of work did you do, what were your responsibilities?


COLIN: So, it started off as just cleaning, but slowly as I kept working there I moved up to concessions, to box office, I even helped with moving projectors, and then worked with the restaurant maybe the last six months. So I learned pretty much everything but the management.


INTERVIEWER: What percentage of your time would you say you were working with patrons or customers?


COLIN: Probably, except for when we were cleaning theatres, maybe eighty-five percent of the time.


INTERVIEWER: Do you remember if your movie theatre had any major policies that they publicly promoted in their advertising related to customer service? Was that something that they advertised?


COLIN: I mean, I don’t know if it was clearly advertised, but we always talked about customer service first. It was always a statement that our managers told us continually, but I don’t know if it was publicly announced that customer service first.


INTERVIEWER: So, for example, some stores have big signs out front that say things like “100% satisfaction guarantee.” Was that the type of thing that you recall them having?


COLIN: No. no.


INTERVIEWER: So, even though if they didn’t necessarily have some, an advertised public policy, in your own words, what were the official policies of the theatre regarding customer service to the best of your knowledge?


COLIN: The official policy would be, “Clean, efficient, fun, movie theatre experience for every guest.” Or customer. We called them “guests” because that was just what they told us to call them instead of “customers.” But yeah, no. Clean, fast, easy, fun.


INTERVIEWER: Were there any policies specifically on how you should interact with customers—or guests, in your case?


COLIN: Very cordially, of course. One of the things in training was always be the first to apologize if anything goes wrong. Never blame the guest—or customer—be concise and clear with them about what they have to offer.


INTERVIEWER: In your view, did your employer’s official policies on customer service align with their actual practice in terms of customer service?


COLIN: That’s a good question. Probably, for the most part, no. I think, for the most part, we were true in word, but when it came to application, I’d guess only about forty percent of the employees or managers actually took that part of the policy serious.


INTERVIEWER: Can you give me any specific examples of a time when your employer—not you, personally—but when a member of management clearly behaved in a way that did or did not meet a policy?


COLIN: Let me think. Well, one of our big things that our movie theatre had that we were trying really hard to push was “Clean movie theatres for everyone.” And there were some assistant managers—I won’t name them—that didn’t mind garbage on the ground and came in, went up and down, cleaned the big stuff and left lots of the little stuff, and just that stigma of if the assistant managers don’t care, it slowly turned into the employees realizing that we didn’t care about cleanliness. And it was a big issue for awhile of assistant managers just not caring about cleanliness, even though they were constantly telling us to be clean and to be efficient in cleaning.


INTERVIEWER: Do you remember any times when there was an interaction directly between an employee and a customer that did or didn’t comply with the things you were saying earlier about courtesy, and being the first to apologize, and some of those policies you talked about?


COLIN: That’s a good question. I don’t know if I ever saw it. It was very . . . Even the assistant managers that were complacent in other areas, as soon as they were in front of a guest, they were extremely cordial. So I don’t know if I saw any of the non-cordialness between managers or assistant managers to guests. It was more the behind the scenes where the lacking occurred.


INTERVIEWER: And would you consider cleanliness a type of customer service?


COLIN: Absolutely. Absolutely.


INTERVIEWER: Did your employer have any other policies that sometimes conflicted with, created tensions with, or made it hard to comply with their policies regarding customer service?


COLIN: Well, that’s a really good question. They pushed us very much that we needed to sell large popcorn, large drinks with every single transaction, but then they said, “Don’t push merchandise.” And there was times that a child would come and order a small drink, and I remember getting, not scolded necessarily, but told I should have tried to get them to buy candy or popcorn. But I was trying to be polite and kind to the fact that this is a child with only four dollars, and they’re getting a four dollar small drink. So, sometimes there was conflicting in the sense that they wanted us to push sales, but they also didn’t want us to push and be impolite to guests, so I think sometimes those two kind of conflicted.


INTERVIEWER: How did you handle that situation, with the child?


COLIN: Well, with the child pretty much all I did was I got them the small drink. It was more of the assistant manager who was near when I was getting the drink for him said, “Is that all you sold?” And when I explained it, they still said, “Well, you should have pushed the sales.” And of course, as an employee I saw, “Oh, I’m sorry. I’ll work on that,” even though that manager didn’t always direct sale anyway too. It was kind of weird.


INTERVIEWER: Can you think of any other policies or situations where one policy made it difficult for you to follow the customer service policies? Or to provide what you would say is good customer service?


COLIN: Not that comes to mind.


INTERVIEWER: In general, at that particular job, how did you personally approach customer service? In terms of policies and what you actually did, what were your mind-set and actions in terms of customer service?


COLIN: Sure. I am very adamant on customer service. Cleanliness is a big thing. I mean, they trained us on all these things, but even my own values and practices kind of seep through. I was always very apologetic. I like to keep the policies, and even though there were managers that had conflicting thoughts, I tried hard to be accommodating to whoever was supervising me.


INTERVIEWER: Was there ever a time when you were unable to give a customer something they wanted or meet a request of theirs because it conflicted with a policy? A time where somebody wanted something and you were not able to provide that?


COLIN: Absolutely. Absolutely. So, our drinks specifically were nonrefillable, and there were many guests who came back and said, “Can I have a refill?” or, “Oops. I spilled this drink. Could I get a refill?,” and because of policy we can’t. Because that’s just what they tell us to do. We can’t give refills on drinks, even if they spill them.


INTERVIEWER: Can you think of any specific examples of a time where somebody came back and said that, and how you responded?


COLIN: Sure. What comes to mind, actually, was it was a group of teenage girls, and they had bought a large drink and a large popcorn—and large popcorns get refills, but not drinks—and right after ordering it, almost three feet away, the girl dropped her drink, and it went scattering. And they came up, and they were like, “Oh my goodness. Can I get a refill?” Because of policy, I had to say, “Unfortunately, we don’t do refills. I could sell you another drink.” And they were a little discouraged because they were rethinking about the drink on the ground, and they felt like it was an accident. They luckily didn’t push anything too much. I think they got a medium drink after that, but they were a little discouraged by the fact that I couldn’t just refill their spilled drink.


INTERVIEWER: Any other times? Any other situations where somebody asked way beyond that? Where a customer was more dissatisfied by that?


COLIN: I mean, it was a policy that lots of employees had issues with because it wasn’t consistent. Some employees let them have it, and so there was one time when—not with me, but the person next to me—where he came back for a refill, and he made this big fuss about how, “The last time I was here, I had refills. This is garbage. Let me talk to your assistant manager.” And we went and got the manager, and the manager explained and apologized, saying they couldn’t give them a refill. But it never got violent. It was just very loud noises. It was very disgruntled kind of yelling.


INTERVIEWER: How did the customer feel at the end of the situation, do you think? What did they express?


COLIN: That’s a good question. I do not know the ending of that story. All I know is that they didn’t get what they wanted, and they made a big fuss, and then they went back to the theatre. That’s all I’ve heard. They might have done more afterwards, but . . .


INTERVIEWER: In general, do you have any thoughts on how you personally might have navigated any differences between a customer’s expectation—what they wanted—and the policies? What were some of your thoughts on that topic?


COLIN: Well, that’s tough because they advertise customer service first, but then some of the policies are more on the business side and less on the customer’s side. So how I, I always try to be cordial. I always try to approach the circumstances, try to do everything I possibly could, based on the policies, but due to the fact that I am employed and getting paid by them, I made sure to keep the policies of selling, and not giving refills, and making sure that you’re checking ID for seventeen and younger, and so forth.


INTERVIEWER: What do you think about policies like that? For example, the girls who spilled their drink in front of you, and it was clear they spilled it and didn’t drink it. How do you think if you were the employer, if you were the person making the decision, how would you have handled that?


COLIN: That’s a good question. I would first have to analyze the situation. I’d have to see how many people are around because, like, if there were lots of people around and you gave out a free refill, even though it went against your policy normally, other people might use that excuse to get more drinks, which I could see on the business end not being good. But, in their scenario, where nobody was around, I don’t think it would have taken that much just to refill them, or even get a new cup and just not charge them, considering it was an accident. It was a clear accident. You saw it happen, and, you know, things like that happen.


INTERVIEWER: Was there ever a time you can recall where someone has come back to you and said, “Look, your policy says ‘customer first,’ and I don’t feel that that’s happening here?”


COLIN: No. I never had that scenario.


INTERVIEWER: Okay, great. My last question is: are there any other thoughts on customer service in retail that you would share in anecdotes or just thoughts that you might have on the subject of customer service from the perspective of an employee?


COLIN: From that of an employee’s, specifically of a movie theatre, it was hard, particularly towards the end. What disgruntled me as an employee the most was the fact that we were selling and trying . . . not to take advantage of guests—but getting money from them and charging really expensive—the business side—but also trying to be accommodating and the face of customer service. You might gripe about a guest, but as soon as a guest is there we put on this facade that things are good. It just seems kind of two faced and kind of cheesy. I understand why it happens, but it’s just unfortunate that that has to be the case, that we have to play two fronts, that of a business making money and ripping people off, and then also making sure they are happy and that they are coming back for more.


INTERVIEWER: Any thoughts on what you would do? If you could make any changes that you wanted, how might you approach that?


COLIN: Just be a little bit more forthright. I think just some of the backwardness behind the scenes isn’t really appropriate, and I think it’s . . . Not many people know about it unless they’ve done customer service, and so I think being forthright about it is something that the public wants, in fact.


INTERVIEWER: Any other thoughts?




INTERVIEWER: Thank you so much for your time. I really appreciate it.

e each other or provided divergent analytic insights.