Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
Changes made to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and texts are outlined in this chapter in the same order in which they appear in the DSM-5 classification. This is not an exhaustive guide; minor changes in text or wording made for clarity are not described here. It should also be noted that Section I of DSM-5 con- tains a description of changes pertaining to the chapter organization in DSM-5, the multiaxial system, and the introduction of dimensional assessments (in Section III).
Terminology The phrase “general medical condition” is replaced in DSM-5 with “another medical condition” where relevant across all disorders.
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Neurodevelopmental Disorders Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder) Diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) emphasize the need for an assessment of both cognitive capacity (IQ) and adaptive functioning. Severity is determined by adaptive functioning rather than IQ score. The term mental retardation was used in DSM-IV. However, intellectual disability is the term that has come into common use over the past two decades among medical, educational, and other professionals, and by the lay public and advocacy groups. Moreover, a federal statue in the United States (Public Law 111-256, Rosa’s Law) replaces the term “mental retarda- tion with intellectual disability. Despite the name change, the deficits in cognitive capacity beginning in the developmental period, with the accompanying diagnostic criteria, are considered to constitute a mental disorder. The term intellectual developmental disorder was placed in parentheses to reflect the World Health Organization’s classification system, which lists “disorders” in the International Classifica- tion of Diseases (ICD; ICD-11 to be released in 2015) and bases all “disabilities” on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Because the ICD-11 will not be adopted for several years, intellectual disability was chosen as the current preferred term with the bridge term for the future in parentheses. Communication Disorders The DSM-5 communication disorders include language disorder (which combines DSM-IV expressive and mixed receptive-expressive language disorders), speech sound disorder (a new name for phono- logical disorder), and childhood-onset fluency disorder (a new name for stuttering). Also included is social (pragmatic) communication disorder, a new condition for persistent difficulties in the social uses of verbal and nonverbal communication. Because social communication deficits are one component of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is important to note that social (pragmatic) communication disorder cannot be diagnosed in the presence of restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (the oth- er component of ASD). The symptoms of some patients diagnosed with DSM-IV pervasive developmen- tal disorder not otherwise specified may meet the DSM-5 criteria for social communication disorder.
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorder is a new DSM-5 name that reflects a scientific consensus that four previously separate disorders are actually a single condition with different levels of symptom severity in two core
2 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
domains. ASD now encompasses the previous DSM-IV autistic disorder (autism), Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD is characterized by 1) deficits in social communication and social interaction and 2) restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (RRBs). Because both components are required for diagnosis of ASD, social communication disorder is diagnosed if no RRBs are present.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 are similar to those in DSM-IV. The same 18 symptoms are used as in DSM-IV, and continue to be divided into two symp- tom domains (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), of which at least six symptoms in one domain are required for diagnosis. However, several changes have been made in DSM-5: 1) examples have been added to the criterion items to facilitate application across the life span; 2) the cross-situational requirement has been strengthened to “several” symptoms in each setting; 3) the onset criterion has been changed from “symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years” to “several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12”; 4) subtypes have been replaced with presentation specifiers that map directly to the prior subtypes; 5) a comorbid diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder is now allowed; and 6) a symptom threshold change has been made for adults, to reflect their substantial evidence of clinically significant ADHD impairment, with the cutoff for ADHD of five symptoms, instead of six required for younger persons, both for inattention and for hyperactivity and impulsivity. Finally, ADHD was placed in the neurodevelopmental disorders chapter to reflect brain developmental correlates with ADHD and the DSM-5 decision to eliminate the DSM-IV chapter that includes all diagnoses usually first made in infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
Specific Learning Disorder Specific learning disorder combines the DSM-IV diagnoses of reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, and learning disorder not otherwise specified. Because learning deficits in the areas of reading, written expression, and mathematics commonly occur together, coded speci- fiers for the deficit types in each area are included. The text acknowledges that specific types of read- ing deficits are described internationally in various ways as dyslexia and specific types of mathematics deficits as dyscalculia.
Motor Disorders The following motor disorders are included in the DSM-5 neurodevelopmental disorders chapter: devel- opmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, Tourette’s disorder, persistent (chron- ic) motor or vocal tic disorder, provisional tic disorder, other specified tic disorder, and unspecified tic disorder. The tic criteria have been standardized across all of these disorders in this chapter. Stereotypic movement disorder has been more clearly differentiated from body-focused repetitive behavior disor- ders that are in the DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive disorder chapter.
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Two changes were made to DSM-IV Criterion A for schizophrenia. The first change is the elimination of the special attribution of bizarre delusions and Schneiderian first-rank auditory hallucinations (e.g., two or more voices conversing). In DSM-IV, only one such symptom was needed to meet the diagnostic requirement for Criterion A, instead of two of the other listed symptoms. This special attribution was
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 • 3
removed due to the nonspecificity of Schneiderian symptoms and the poor reliability in distinguishing bizarre from nonbizarre delusions. Therefore, in DSM-5, two Criterion A symptoms are required for any diagnosis of schizophrenia. The second change is the addition of a requirement in Criterion A that the individual must have at least one of these three symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech. At least one of these core “positive symptoms” is necessary for a reliable diagnosis of schizo- phrenia.
Schizophrenia subtypes The DSM-IV subtypes of schizophrenia (i.e., paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual types) are eliminated due to their limited diagnostic stability, low reliability, and poor validity. These subtypes also have not been shown to exhibit distinctive patterns of treatment response or lon- gitudinal course. Instead, a dimensional approach to rating severity for the core symptoms of schizo- phrenia is included in Section III to capture the important heterogeneity in symptom type and severity expressed across individuals with psychotic disorders.
Schizoaffective Disorder The primary change to schizoaffective disorder is the requirement that a major mood episode be pres- ent for a majority of the disorder’s total duration after Criterion A has been met. This change was made on both conceptual and psychometric grounds. It makes schizoaffective disorder a longitudinal instead of a cross-sectional diagnosis—more comparable to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depres- sive disorder, which are bridged by this condition. The change was also made to improve the reliability, diagnostic stability, and validity of this disorder, while recognizing that the characterization of patients with both psychotic and mood symptoms, either concurrently or at different points in their illness, has been a clinical challenge.
Delusional Disorder Criterion A for delusional disorder no longer has the requirement that the delusions must be non- bizarre. A specifier for bizarre type delusions provides continuity with DSM-IV. The demarcation of delusional disorder from psychotic variants of obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder is explicitly noted with a new exclusion criterion, which states that the symptoms must not be better explained by conditions such as obsessive-compulsive or body dysmorphic disorder with absent insight/delusional beliefs. DSM-5 no longer separates delusional disorder from shared delusional dis- order. If criteria are met for delusional disorder then that diagnosis is made. If the diagnosis cannot be made but shared beliefs are present, then the diagnosis “other specified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder” is used.
Catatonia The same criteria are used to diagnose catatonia whether the context is a psychotic, bipolar, depres- sive, or other medical disorder, or an unidentified medical condition. In DSM-IV, two out of five symp- tom clusters were required if the context was a psychotic or mood disorder, whereas only one symp- tom cluster was needed if the context was a general medical condition. In DSM-5, all contexts require three catatonic symptoms (from a total of 12 characteristic symptoms). In DSM-5, catatonia may be diagnosed as a specifier for depressive, bipolar, and psychotic disorders; as a separate diagnosis in the context of another medical condition; or as an other specified diagnosis.
4 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
Bipolar and Related Disorders Bipolar Disorders To enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and facilitate earlier detection in clinical settings, Criterion A for manic and hypomanic episodes now includes an emphasis on changes in activity and energy as well as mood. The DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, mixed episode, requiring that the individual simulta- neously meet full criteria for both mania and major depressive episode, has been removed. Instead, a new specifier, “with mixed features,” has been added that can be applied to episodes of mania or hy- pomania when depressive features are present, and to episodes of depression in the context of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder when features of mania/hypomania are present.
Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorder DSM-5 allows the specification of particular conditions for other specified bipolar and related disorder, including categorization for individuals with a past history of a major depressive disorder who meet all criteria for hypomania except the duration criterion (i.e., at least 4 consecutive days). A second condi- tion constituting an other specified bipolar and related disorder is that too few symptoms of hypoma- nia are present to meet criteria for the full bipolar II syndrome, although the duration is sufficient at 4 or more days.
Anxious Distress Specifier In the chapter on bipolar and related disorders and the chapter on depressive disorders, a specifier for anxious distress is delineated. This specifier is intended to identify patients with anxiety symptoms that are not part of the bipolar diagnostic criteria.
Depressive Disorders DSM-5 contains several new depressive disorders, including disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. To address concerns about potential overdiagnosis and overtreat- ment of bipolar disorder in children, a new diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, is includ- ed for children up to age 18 years who exhibit persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol. Based on strong scientific evidence, premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been moved from DSM-IV Appendix B, “Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study,” to the main body of DSM-5. Finally, DSM-5 conceptualizes chronic forms of depression in a somewhat modified way. What was referred to as dysthymia in DSM-IV now falls under the category of persistent depressive dis- order, which includes both chronic major depressive disorder and the previous dysthymic disorder. An inability to find scientifically meaningful differences between these two conditions led to their combi- nation with specifiers included to identify different pathways to the diagnosis and to provide continuity with DSM-IV.
Major Depressive Disorder Neither the core criterion symptoms applied to the diagnosis of major depressive episode nor the req- uisite duration of at least 2 weeks has changed from DSM-IV. Criterion A for a major depressive episode in DSM-5 is identical to that of DSM-IV, as is the requirement for clinically significant distress or impair- ment in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, although this is now listed as Criterion B rather than Criterion C. The coexistence within a major depressive episode of at least three manic symptoms (insufficient to satisfy criteria for a manic episode) is now acknowledged by the specifier “with mixed features.” The presence of mixed features in an episode of major depressive disorder in-
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creases the likelihood that the illness exists in a bipolar spectrum; however, if the individual concerned has never met criteria for a manic or hypomanic episode, the diagnosis of major depressive disorder is retained.
Bereavement Exclusion In DSM-IV, there was an exclusion criterion for a major depressive episode that was applied to depres- sive symptoms lasting less than 2 months following the death of a loved one (i.e., the bereavement exclusion). This exclusion is omitted in DSM-5 for several reasons. The first is to remove the implication that bereavement typically lasts only 2 months when both physicians and grief counselors recognize that the duration is more commonly 1–2 years. Second, bereavement is recognized as a severe psy- chosocial stressor that can precipitate a major depressive episode in a vulnerable individual, generally beginning soon after the loss. When major depressive disorder occurs in the context of bereavement, it adds an additional risk for suffering, feelings of worthlessness, suicidal ideation, poorer somatic health, worse interpersonal and work functioning, and an increased risk for persistent complex bereavement disorder, which is now described with explicit criteria in Conditions for Further Study in DSM-5 Section III. Third, bereavement-related major depression is most likely to occur in individuals with past personal and family histories of major depressive episodes. It is genetically influenced and is associated with similar personality characteristics, patterns of comorbidity, and risks of chronicity and/or recurrence as non–bereavement-related major depressive episodes. Finally, the depressive symptoms associated with bereavement-related depression respond to the same psychosocial and medication treatments as non–bereavement-related depression. In the criteria for major depressive disorder, a detailed footnote has replaced the more simplistic DSM-IV exclusion to aid clinicians in making the critical distinction be- tween the symptoms characteristic of bereavement and those of a major depressive episode. Thus, al- though most people experiencing the loss of a loved one experience bereavement without developing a major depressive episode, evidence does not support the separation of loss of a loved one from other stressors in terms of its likelihood of precipitating a major depressive episode or the relative likelihood that the symptoms will remit spontaneously.
Specifiers for Depressive Disorders Suicidality represents a critical concern in psychiatry. Thus, the clinician is given guidance on assess- ment of suicidal thinking, plans, and the presence of other risk factors in order to make a determination of the prominence of suicide prevention in treatment planning for a given individual. A new specifier to indicate the presence of mixed symptoms has been added across both the bipolar and the depressive disorders, allowing for the possibility of manic features in individuals with a diagnosis of unipolar de- pression. A substantial body of research conducted over the last two decades points to the importance of anxiety as relevant to prognosis and treatment decision making. The “with anxious distress” specifier gives the clinician an opportunity to rate the severity of anxious distress in all individuals with bipolar or depressive disorders.
Anxiety Disorders The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorder no longer includes obsessive-compulsive disorder (which is included with the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders) or posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder (which is included with the trauma- and stressor-related disorders). However, the sequential order of these chapters in DSM-5 reflects the close relationships among them.
6 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5