Program49811205Lesson250200Exam No.250200Exam NameJOURNAL PART 1: ENTRIES 1-6

Course Journal, Part 1: Entries 1-6

This exam is your first journal submission. Review the instructions in your digital study guide on pages 16-17 to ensure that you have

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  • included required journal entries 1-6
    • entries 1-6 correspond to the required reading in lessons 1, 2, and 3.
  • formatted your journal correctly
    • formatting instructions are in your digital study guide
  • included your header with all required information and saved your exam correctly
    • Instructions for the header and file name are page 6 in your digital study guide.

      Study Guide

      English Composition














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      INTRODUCTION Welcome to English Composition. You may be surprised to find out that, even now, you’re already a writer. You’ve probably done a great deal of writing as a student and per- haps in other roles, as well. Maybe you’ve kept a diary, tried your hand at poetry, or written a short story. Maybe you have a job or a voluntary position that requires records, reports, or case notes. Even if you’ve never thought of such activities as writing experience, they are.

      This course is designed not to make you a writer from scratch but to encourage your growth as one. Both the textbook and the instructors will guide you in developing the skills and techniques of effective writing through practice. You’ll learn to make conscious decisions using particular tools to communicate more effectively and efficiently to your reader.

      COURSE OBJECTIVES You’ll learn to apply different writing strategies in varying arrangements to explore, develop, and refine written work according to your purpose and audience.

      When you complete this course, you’ll be able to

      n Identify the steps in the writing process

      n Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write formal, college-level essays

      n Distinguish between different patterns of development

      n Apply an appropriate pattern of development to a specific purpose and audience

      n Write effective thesis statements

      n Write effective introductions and conclusions

      n Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail, supporting evidence, and transitions

      n Define plagiarism and academic honesty


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      Instructions to Students2

      n Employ responsible research methods to locate appropri- ate secondary sources

      n Quote, paraphrase, and summarize secondary source material correctly and appropriately

      n Use Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and documentation style to reference secondary source material correctly and appropriately

      n Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce correct, well-written essays

      COURSE MATERIALS This course includes the following materials:

      1. This study guide, which serves as a companion to your textbook, contains an introduction to your course and

      n A list of lessons and reading assignments

      n Exercises and self-check quizzes to help you learn the course content, and then synthesize and apply your knowledge to journal entries and essays

      2. Your course textbook, Successful College Writing, which contains the assigned reading material

      YOUR TEXTBOOK Your primary text for this course is Successful College Writing, Sixth Edition, by Kathleen T. McWhorter. Begin reviewing the text by reading the table of contents on page xxvii–xlv. Then follow the study guide for directions on required reading assignments. Note the following features of your text:

      n The “Writing Quick Start” features at the beginning of each chapter are short introductions designed to help you get a head start on the material. Make sure you work through the exercises, even though they won’t be formally evaluated.



      n The major headings and subheadings break down each chapter’s content into manageable sections. Exercises and model essays are also important parts of every chapter.

      n Modern Language Association and American Psychological Association style guides for citing and documenting your research. These can be found beginning on page 616 in Chapter 24.

      n The grammar handbook includes information and exercises on the foundational elements of writing, such as grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, and word choice.

      ACADEMIC SUPPORT AND ONLINE RESOURCES Penn Foster’s digital library offers students access to online resources in all major disciplines and courses offered at Penn Foster, as well as one of the most comprehensive academic databases available today, Expanded Academic ASAP.

      Penn Foster’s librarian is available to answer questions about research and to help students locate resources. You can find the librarian in the Community, by using the Contact an Instructor link in the Help Center in your student portal, and the Ask a Librarian link in the library.

      Grammar Resources is offering discounts to Penn Foster students who register for a year of service. For a discounted fee, Penn Foster students have unlimited access to the Grammarly’s grammar, spelling, and punctuation check, as well as the plagiarism check. For students who have limited experience with research writing, Grammarly could be the helping hand you need to negotiate the research papers in your future.

      To learn more about Grammarly or to register for an account, please contact an English instructor.

      Instructions to Students 3



      Other online resources for grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and mechanics include the following:

      A STUDY PLAN Read this study guide carefully, and think of it as a blueprint for your course. Using the following procedures should help you receive maximum benefit from your studies:

      1. Read the lesson in the study guide to introduce you to concepts that are discussed in the textbook. The lesson emphasizes the important material and provides addi- tional tips or examples.

      2. Note the pages for each reading assignment. Read the assignment to get a general idea of its content. Then, study the assignment. Pay attention to all details, espe- cially the main concepts.

      3. To review the material, answer the questions and prob- lems provided in the self-checks in the study guide.

      4. Complete each assignment in this way. If you miss any questions, review the pages of the textbook covering those questions. The self-checks are designed to allow you to evaluate your understanding of the material and reveal weak points that you need to review. Don’t submit self-check answers for grading.

      5. After you’ve completed and corrected the self-checks for Lesson 1, complete the first exam.

      6. Follow this procedure for all seven lessons.

      Instructions to Students4

      Daily Grammar:

      Blue Book of Grammar and Mechanics:

      Guide to Grammar and Writing, sponsored by Capital Community College Foundation:

      Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab:



      Instructions to Students 5

      Note: Future lessons will include completing prewriting and essay examinations, submitting journal entries, and attending webinars.


      Study Pace You have a study time limit for the semester, but not one specific to English Composition. You must pace yourself wisely through the semester’s courses. Allow sufficient time for reading, prewriting, drafting, revising, and grading. To learn more about study time and when to complete each assignment, see the ENG100 FAQ supplement on your student portal.

      Because the course goal is to help you grow as a writer, you’ll use the process approach to writing to identify your strengths and improve weaknesses. The prewriting assignments for Lessons 4 and 5 will help you to develop and organize your ideas, and must be evaluated before your essays for those Lessons will be accepted. If you have other courses available for study, you may work on those and submit those exams while also working to complete this English course.

      Course Journal Your course journal is an ongoing assignment that will be evaluated at regular intervals during the course. Instructions for the course journal are at the end of this introduction.

      Required Webinars Webinars are live classes that students attend online. There are two required webinars in English Composition: “The Writing Process” and “Research Writing and Citation and Documentation.” The English Composition course information includes webinar instructions and the webinar schedule. Read the webinar instructions to learn how to regis- ter for a webinar. Webinar classes are offered at a variety of times to fit students’ schedules. To earn a passing grade in the webinar, you must log in on time, participate actively, stay for the entire class, and focus on the presentation, not other applications on your computer. There is nothing to submit on your My Courses page.



      Instructions to Students6

      Exam Submissions Use the following information for submitting your completed exams:

      1. Multiple-choice examinations (Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 6): You’ll submit your answers for these exams online.

      2. Written examinations (Lessons 4, 5, and 7): Essays must be typed, double-spaced, in Times New Roman 12 pt. font and left justification. Use 1-inch margins on all sides. Note that most word-processing programs are set at 1 inch by default. Indent the first line of each new paragraph by one tab (five spaces). Tabs are generally set by default as well. Each page must have a properly for- matted header containing your name, student number, exam number, page number, mailing address, and email address, as in the following example:

      Jane Doe 23456789 25020200 Page 2 987 Nice Street My Town, AZ 34567

      Name each document using a unique file name which will help you identify the file, such as this example: Process Analysis Johnson.

      Exams may be submitted in Rich Text Format or MS Word. Preview your document before you submit to ensure that your formatting is correct. You should take care to check that the document you’ve uploaded is the one containing your final work for evaluation.

      Evaluation Evaluation usually occurs within seven business days of receipt. Exams are scored according to the parameters of the exam assignment using the associated evaluation chart located in the study guide. Your instructors will apply the grading criteria, ensuring all essays are evaluated in the same way. They may also include feedback on both the essay and the evaluation chart. Evaluations are monitored by the department chairs of both the General Education Department



      Instructions to Students 7

      and Exam Control Department to ensure accuracy and reliability. To read the instructor’s comments, click on the View Project button next to your grade for the exam, then download the Instructor Feedback File. Be sure to save the Instructor Feedback File to your computer since it’s available on your student portal for just a brief time.

      Retakes You’re required to complete all assigned work, including a retake for any first-time failing attempt. The evaluation of any first-time failing exam for English Composition will include a Required Retake form. That form must then be included with your retake exam submission to ensure proper handling. If the assigned work isn’t provided, submissions will be evalu- ated according to the criteria, but points will be deducted for not following the instructions. Please review school policy about retakes in the Student Handbook.

      Plagiarism Carefully review the academic policies outlined in your Student Handbook on your student portal. The first submis- sion that departs from this policy earns a grade of 1 percent. If it’s a first-time submission, the student may retake the exam (see the retake policy in the Student Handbook). A sec- ond such submission on any subsequent exam results in failure of the English Composition course.

      Grammar and Mechanics The focus of this course is to engage you in the writing process so you learn to make deliberate decisions about which writing strategies will best help you accomplish your purpose for your audience.



      Instructions to Students8

      Essay assignments require you to apply standard conven- tions of American English, which include correct and appropriate grammar, diction, punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure, and spelling. The course provides various revision exercises throughout the self-checks and lesson examinations so that you can apply these conventions during the editing and proofreading phases of your writing. For more information on the fundamentals of writing, refer to the Academic Support and Online Resources section.


      Six Traits of Good Essay Writing Your writing assignments will be evaluated on six traits of good writing. The instructions for each exam include the grading evaluation form, or rubric, that instructors will use to grade your work. It’s important to review the rubric for each exam before you submit to ensure that you have met all the requirements..


      Ideas and Content

      The essay’s content is clear, original, and pertains to the assigned subject. In addition, you should have a well- developed thesis that fits the topic, audience, and purpose of the assignment. There should be enough evidence (which shouldn’t be from outside research unless that is part of the assignment) to help the reader understand the point you’re making and to keep the reader’s interest.



      Instructions to Students 9

      Citation and Documentation

      When you incorporate borrowed content from other sources into your writing, you must cite and document your sources using Modern Language (MLA) format. For more information on MLA format, refer to Chapter 24 in your textbook.


      All essays need a clear beginning, middle, and end. Consider each paragraph as a mini-essay, containing a thesis that’s related to the main purpose of the entire essay. Thinking this way can help your essay retain unity and make sense. Use transitional phrases to ease the movement and make connec- tions between the paragraphs.


      Use the appropriate point of view for the style of essay you are writing: first person for personal narratives; third person for critical essays.

      Word Choice

      Don’t use slang, jargon, Internet abbreviations, or profanity. Remember, these are college-level essays; they require formal, proper American English writing.

      Sentence Fluency

      Mix your sentence styles. Readers dislike reading all short, choppy sentences or a series of long sentences.


      Run a spell check and grammar check, and proofread the essay. In addition, ensure that you met the length and format requirements.



      Instructions to Students

      Skill Levels All these criteria are evaluated according to skill levels. Here’s an explanation of the skill levels:

      Skill not evident. (69–0) If the essay scored in this category, the assignment either doesn’t include this required element or severely lacks this trait.

      Skill emerging. (70–79) If the assignment scored in this cat- egory, the writing lacks the trait or is below average for a college-level paper.

      Skills developing. (80–89) If the essay scored in this cate- gory, the essay shows effort and competence but indicates a lack of complete understanding or command in this area.

      Skill realized. (90–100) If the assignment scored in this category, the writing demonstrates that you’re in command of the skills.




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      Course Rubric

      Course Objectives

      Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write formal, college-level essays

      Distinguish between different patterns of development

      Write effective thesis statements

      Employ responsible research methods to locate appropriate secondary sources

      Use Modern Language Association citation and documentation style to reference secondary source material correctly and appropriately

      Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail, supporting evidence and transitions

      Quote, paraphrase and summarize secondary source material correctly and appropriately

      Use Modern Language Association citation and documentation style to reference secondary source material correctly and appropriately

      Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce correct, well-written essays

      Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce correct, well- written essays

      Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce correct, well- written essays



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      A Paper 100-90

      The essay provides a clear thesis statement that effectively introduces the topic and states a claim.

      The thesis effectively previews the main points of the essay.

      The essay presents ideas that are fresh, insightful and engaging.

      The essay provides specific, relevant evidence to illustrate ideas and support the thesis.

      The essay effectively employs the required, and if necessary other relevant patterns of develop to effective convey ideas.

      Ideas that cannot be considered common knowledge are correctly cited and documented using Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format.

      Introductory paragraph effectively engages the reader and includes a thesis statement which states both topic and claim.

      The main ideas that support the thesis are effectively organized into paragraphs beginning with clearly defined, correct topic sentences.

      Evidence provided within each paragraph clearly and relates to the topic sentence and thesis statement, effectively supporting the main idea and purpose of the essay.

      Transitions are used effectively to guide the reader through the essay.

      The conclusion effectively reinforces the thesis statement and provides a satisfactory ending to the essay.

      The essay addresses the appropriate audience.

      The essay effectively engages the audience with appropriate tone and point of view.

      The essay is focused on the writer’s own claim, knowledge and experience.

      If secondary sources are present, they are used correctly and effectively to support the writer’s own claims.

      The essay effectively addresses the purpose of the assignment.

      The essay is free of errors in sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and word choice.

      Unfamiliar and technical terms are clearly and effectively defined for the reader.

      The essay has been effectively proofread, edited and spell and grammar-checked.

      The essay meets the length requirement according to the directions in the digital study guide.

      The essay is formatted using the correct header, font and margins.



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      B Paper 89-80

      The essay provides a thesis statement that states the topic although the exact claim is not articulated.

      The thesis offers adequate direction for the essay, but does not explicitly outline main points.

      The essay offers adequate insight and ideas, though much of the information is factual or obvious.

      The essay offers specific evidence to illustrate ideas and support the thesis.

      The writer follows the required pattern of development, and incorporates other patterns adequately to develop content.

      The writer has attempted to use MLA format to indicate borrowed content but formatting requires some revision.

      The introduction identifies the topic and includes a thesis statement but offers little beyond the obvious to engage the reader.

      Most paragraphs begin with a topic sentence that relates to and supports the thesis statement.

      Most evidence provided is relevant to the topic sentence and thesis.

      The writer uses transitions between most paragraphs to guide the reader through the essay.

      The conclusion restates the thesis, but lacks development that would end the essay satisfactorily.

      The essay adequately addresses the appropriate audience.

      The essay adequately engages the audience using appropriate tone and point of view.

      The essay is adequately focused on the writer’s own claim, knowledge and experience.

      If secondary sources are present, they are used correctly and effectively to support the writer’s own claims.

      The essay adequately addresses the purpose of the assignment.

      The essay is reasonably free of errors in sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and word choice.

      Unfamiliar and technical terms are clearly and adequately defined for the reader.

      The essay has been proofread, edited and spell and grammar- checked but includes minor errors in word choice that would draw the reader’s attention away from the purpose and content.

      The essay exceeds the maximum length for the assignment but content is engaging and directly related to the thesis and purpose.

      The essay falls short of the minimum length for the assignment, but covers all required elements adequately.

      The essay is formatted using the correct header, font and margins.



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      C Paper 79-70

      The thesis is a factual statement that offers no claim or assertion.

      The thesis offers some direction for the essay, but does not explicitly outline main points.

      Some fresh insight is provided, though much of the information is factual or obvious.

      The essay offers some specific evidence to illustrate ideas and support the thesis.

      The writer follows the required pattern of development, but the essay lacks the content that additional patterns would provide.

      The writer has attempted to use a citation and documentation format, but does not adequately credit secondary sources.

      The introduction includes a thesis statement but is otherwise underdeveloped.

      The writer attempts to organize main ideas into paragraphs but topic sentences are weak and do not control content; paragraphs lack focus and logical development.

      Evidence is provided but its relationship to the thesis and topic sentence is not clearly defined. Some evidence is not relevant to the thesis and topic sentence.

      Transitions are used in some cases, but the essay lacks cohesiveness overall.

      The conclusion restates the thesis statement, but is underdeveloped or contains irrelevant information.

      The essay illustrates some awareness of audience.

      The essay employs colloquial or idiomatic language, lacking appropriate tone and point of view.

      The essay is somewhat focused on the writer’s own knowledge and experience but lacks a clear claim or position on the topic.

      If secondary sources are present, they are identified but citation and documentation is incorrect and requires revision.

      The essay addresses the purpose of the assign- ment only tangentially.

      The essay is includes errors in sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and word choice.

      Unfamiliar and technical terms are somewhat defined for the reader but lack full development.

      The essay shows attempts at proofread- ing, editing and spell and grammar-checking, but includes several errors in word choice that would draw the reader’s attention away from the purpose and content.

      The essay exceeds the maximum length for the assignment; content is repetitive and unengaging.

      The essay falls short of the minimum length for the assignment, and does not fully address the topic and purpose.

      The essay includes the correct information for the header but it is not inserted correctly.

      The essay does not employ the correct formatting.



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      F Paper 69-0

      The essay does not offer a thesis statement.

      The ideas presented are not original to the writer; ideas do not convey writer’s engagement with topic.

      The essay does not provide specific, relevant evidence to illustrate ideas and support the thesis.

      The essay does not employ the required or relevant patterns of develop to effective convey ideas.

      Ideas that cannot be considered common knowledge are not cited and documented.

      Introductory paragraph does not engage the reader, lacks thesis statement and development.

      Essay lacks clearly defined main ideas; the essay is not organized into paragraphs.

      Essay lacks evidence or provides unreliable or inaccurate.

      The essay lacks transitional words, phrases or sentences.

      The essay lacks a conclusion, or the conclusion contains irrelevant information.

      The essay does not address the appropriate audience.

      The essay does not engage the audience with appropriate tone and point of view.

      The essay relies heavily on secondary sources with little to no focus on the writer’s claim, knowledge, and experience.

      If secondary sources are not cited or identified, resulting in plagiarism.

      The essay does not address the purpose of the assignment.

      The essay contains numerous errors in sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and word choice, mak- ing it difficult for a reader to follow and comprehend.

      No attempt is made to define or clarify unfamiliar terms.

      The essay does not appear to have been proofread, edited or spell and grammar- checked.

      The essay does not meet the length require- ments.

      The font, margin and line spacing do not meet the requirements.

      The header is missing.



      Instructions to Students16

      Course Journal Your course journal isn’t just a series of examinations, it’s also a record of your progress through English Composition. As you complete the 18 journal entries, you’ll have the opportunity to test the stages of the writing process, practice different methods of organizing your essays, and evalu-

      ate your progress in the course. All the journal entries are included in your study guide; each

      entry corresponds to the assigned reading in your textbooks.

      The journal serves as the final exam. Remember the following objectives as you work on

      each journal:

      n Identify the steps in the writing process.

      n Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write formal, college-level essays.

      n Distinguish between different patterns of development.

      n Apply an appropriate pattern of development to a specific purpose and audience.

      n Write effective thesis statements.

      n Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail, supporting evidence,

      and transitions.

      n Define plagiarism and academic honesty.

      n Employ responsible research methods to locate appropriate secondary sources.

      n Quote, paraphrase, and summarize secondary source material correctly and appropriately.

      n Use Modern Language Association citation and documentation style to reference secondary

      source material correctly and appropriately.

      n Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce correct,

      well-written essays.

      Directions: Read each entry assignment carefully. Some entries are based on textbook exercises for

      which the pages are given. Most entries require multiple parts to be considered complete. For exam-

      ple, you might have to complete both a prewriting and a thesis. Assignments generally include a

      minimum length, a range, or a general format (such as one paragraph). A few assignments allow you

      to choose the length and format to accomplish the required work. The guidelines list the minimum

      amount of work you must produce, but you should continue writing until you complete your thoughts

      and demonstrate your knowledge and ability to apply the relevant concepts. Complete each journal

      entry as you read the corresponding assignments in your textbook and study guide. You’ll use your

      time more efficiently.



      Instructions to Students 17

      The course journal is divided into three parts made up of six entries each. At the end of each

      course unit, you’ll submit your journal for evaluation. Therefore, you’ll submit your journals

      n After you complete Lesson 3

      n After you complete Lesson 5

      n After you complete your argument essay

      Format: Use the exam submission instructions already given, except that you should single-space

      your journal. Use double spacing between entries only. First, type the date, hit Tab once (one-

      half inch), and type in capital boldface letters the word ENTRY, followed by the number and name

      of that entry. Hit Enter once, and then type in and underline the first part label followed by your

      writing for that part. Then, do the same for any additional parts. Use this example as a guide:

      May 1, 20— ENTRY 1: Me, A Writer?

      Attitude: I enjoy writing, but I hate being graded . . .

      Inventory: I am a social learner, so a distance education approach may be difficult for me . . .

      May 20, 20— ENTRY 2: The Role of Correctness in Writing

      Evaluation: Your journal will be evaluated according to the same requirements used for all written

      assignments requirements:

      n Ideas and content—How accurately and effectively you’ve responded to the entry. Your

      writing is focused on the topic of the entry and is based on the correct reading assignments

      in your texts; you’ve effectively engaged with the content of the reading assignments and

      composed thoughtful original responses to each entry; when required, you cited and

      documented secondary source material appropriately and correctly.

      n Organization—How well each entry is developed. All paragraphs begin with an appropriate

      topic sentence and are developed fully by using examples, illustration, and/or evidence;

      each entry meets the required minimum length.

      n General correctness—How well entries meet the expectations of college-level academic

      writing in the following areas:

      n Sentence structure

      n Grammar

      n Word choice and spelling

      n Punctuation

      n Format—How accurately you’ve followed the prescribed format for the journal by

      including the required header, entry title and date, and used correct margins, font,

      and line spacing.



      Instructions to Students18




      Unit 1: Introduction to Composition Lesson 1: Critical Thinking, Reading and Writing Skills For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 1 Pages 24–27 Chapter 1

      Assignment 2 Pages 28–31 Chapter 2

      Assignment 3 Pages 32–39 Part 7, Pages 721–779

      Assignment 4 Pages 40–43 Chapter 3

      Assignment 5 Pages 44–46 Chapter 4

      Examination 250394RR Material in Lesson 1

      Lesson 2: The Reading and Writing Process For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 6 Pages 47–52 Chapter 5

      Assignment 7 Pages 53–56 Chapter 6

      Assignment 8 Pages 57–61 Chapter 7

      Assignment 9 Pages 62–65 Chapter 8

      Examination 250395RR Material in Lesson 2

      Lesson 3: Revising and Editing For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 10 Pages 68–74 Chapter 9

      Assignment 11 Pages 75–80 Chapter 10

      Examination 250396RR Material in Lesson 3

      Unit 1 Course Journal: Entries 1–6 25020000


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      Lesson Assignments20

      Unit 2: The Writing Process in Action

      Lesson 4: Narration and Process Analysis For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 12 Pages 85–89 Chapter 11

      Assignment 13 Pages 90–94 Chapter 12

      Assignment 14 Pages 95–99 Chapter 13

      Assignment 15 Pages 100–103 Chapter 14

      Assignment 16 Pages 104–107 Chapter 15

      Examination 25020100 Prewriting: Process Analysis

      Examination 25020200 Essay: Process Analysis

      Lesson 5: Classification and Division For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 17 Pages 120–125 Chapter 16

      Assignment 18 Pages 126–130 Chapter 17

      Assignment 19 Pages 131–135 Chapter 18

      Assignment 20 Pages 136–140 Chapter 19

      Examination 25020300 Prewriting: Classification and Division

      Examination 25020400 Essay: Classification and Division

      Unit 2 Course Journal: Entries 7–12 25020500

      Unit 3: Research Writing and MLA Citation Lesson 6: Research and MLA Citation For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 21 Pages 156–159 Chapter 22

      Assignment 22 Pages 160–163 Chapter 23

      Assignment 23 Pages 164–167 Chapter 24

      Examination 250397RR Material in Lesson 3



      Lesson Assignments 21

      Lesson 7: Arguments For: Read in the Read in the

      study guide: textbook:

      Assignment 24 Pages 170–178 Chapter 20

      Assignment 25 Pages 179–182 Chapter 21

      Examination 25020600 Essay: Argument

      Unit 3 Course Journal: Entries 13–18 25020700

      Note: To access and complete any of the examinations for this study

      guide, click on the appropriate Take Exam icon on your student

      portal. You should not have to enter the examination numbers.

      These numbers are for reference only if you have reason to contact

      Student CARE.



      Lesson Assignments22





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      Lesson 1: Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing Skills

      INTRODUCTION Understanding basic grammar can help in all parts of your everyday life, from casual conversation, to emails, to formal reports. Correct grammar can help you personally, profes- sionally, and academically.

      To become an effective writer, you must first have a strong understanding of English language. You should know how words are pronounced, how they’re spelled, and how they fit into sentences. Knowing the basics will enable you to be more comfortable and confident when faced with any writing task.

      The main topics discussed in this section are grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and word usage.

      OBJECTIVES When you complete this lesson, you’ll be able to

      n Effectively use your textbook

      n Discuss why writing is an important part of your study program

      n Identify your unique learning style

      n Use active reading methods to understand and analyze text

      n Point out the importance of prewriting in developing a piece of writing

      n Describe the parts of speech and how they work within sentence structure



      English Composition24

      n Develop effective, structured sentences

      n Use a variety of words in your writing

      n Discuss the need for a strong foundation in English com- position and effective writing skills

      ASSIGNMENT 1: GETTING STARTED Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 1 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Succeeding in College People write for two basic reasons. The first is private and personal. That is, some of us write to express ourselves, to translate thoughts and feelings into words. One example in this context is the poet Emily Dickinson. She wrote for her- self and one or two close friends—only a few of her poems were published during her lifetime. Many people keep per- sonal journals that express their feelings and sometimes help them to think through problems or opportunities. Still others find that writing down ideas and rephrasing concepts helps them study and learn.

      The second reason people write is to convey ideas and infor- mation to others. This purpose covers most other types of writing, from published novels to advertising, from blogs to essays for school. Through effective language skills, we expand our experiences, make personal connections, and sharpen our communication skills.

      For writing to be effective, standard rules must be learned and applied. You’ll practice using proper grammar, sentence structure, and organized paragraphs to help you achieve this purpose.

      You can practice good writing by paying close attention while you’re reading. Pay attention to mistakes, too. If you come across a sentence or headline in a newspaper that you have to read several times before you understand it, try rewriting it



      Lesson 1 25

      to make it clear on the first reading. It may need to be rearranged, divided into two sentences, or have a comma or two added. If you can, keep a file of the poor sentences and your improvements. Note what the problem was and what it took to fix the sentence. Also, when you write, try reading aloud from your paper to see if there are any stumbling places.

      The most agile of runners begins with baby steps. Likewise, all learning proceeds in stages, step by step. For a student of English composition, here are some of the most important principles:

      n Study the rules of effective sentence construction for all types of sentences, so you’ll be better able to say what you want to say clearly and concisely.

      n Learn to make your points directly and effectively. Back up your statements with evidence that supports your case and persuades your reader.

      n Keep your reader’s interest. Even the most boring sub- jects can be improved with anecdotes, examples, and clever word choices.

      n Approach different kinds of writing and different audi- ences in appropriate ways. Letters, memos, academic essays, instructions, and business reports each require a different style of writing. Always consider your audience before you begin writing.

      n Study the techniques used by skilled writers, including brainstorming, free association, outlining, organizing, revision, self-criticism, and editing.

      Practical Applications of Writing As noted earlier, regardless of the career you choose, commu- nication is a key to success. Virtually all job descriptions include some kind of paperwork—record keeping, summaries, analyses—and the higher up the ladder you go, the more communication will matter. The following examples reveal the broad range in the types of writing different career fields



      English Composition26

      require, from using narration to persuasive analysis. Even if your field of interest isn’t listed, you can see the importance of writing in a variety of careers.

      Early Childhood Education

      n Narration recording weekly observations of playground behavior among first-grade students

      n Case study in early-childhood cognitive development analyzing the concepts of Jean Piaget in light of the observed behavior of selected subjects

      Health Information Technology

      n Process analysis to explain what’s involved in a specific medical procedure

      n Proposal and illustration of methods by which type-2 diabetes patients may be encouraged to pursue a pre- scribed health regimen


      n Analytical essay comparing and contrasting the American double-entry bookkeeping system with the European five-book system

      n Comparison and analysis of corporate performance in metals-refining industries based on financial statement data derived from Moody’s Industrials


      n Historical and analytical description of the evolution of load-bearing theories in bridge construction

      n Process analysis to describe technology and molecular theory for detecting likely metal stress areas in an air- craft prototype



      Lesson 1 27

      Self-Check 1 At the end of each section of English Composition, you’ll be asked to pause and check your

      understanding of what you’ve just read by completing a “self-check” exercise. Answering

      these questions will help you review what you’ve studied so far. Please complete Self-

      Check 1 now.

      1. Complete Exercise 1.1 on page 9.

      2. Complete Exercise 1.2 on page 10.

      3. Complete the “How Stressed Are You?” Quiz on page 11.

      4. Complete Exercise 1.3 on page 13.

      5. Complete Exercise 1.4 on page 13.

      There are no correct responses to these exercises. The exercises are for practice and per-

      sonal use. However, you can check possible responses to Exercises 1.1 and 1.2 in the

      Answers section.



      English Composition28

      ASSIGNMENT 2: WRITING AND READING TEXT Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 2 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Introduction In this chapter, you’ll learn what constitutes academic writ- ing (as opposed to informal writing). You’ll also learn the importance of becoming a better writer, and you’ll learn and develop techniques to improve your writing skills.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 21–24

      Academic writing is distinctive from, say, writing a letter (or email) to a friend or expressing sentiments in a birthday card or keeping a personal diary. Here’s a preview of your text’s view of academic writing:

      n You can expect your writing to shift from personal to less personal. You’ll use your “left brain” to take an objec- tive—as opposed to subjective—point of view.

      n Academic writing takes different forms, generally depend- ing on particular college courses. Lab reports, critical-analytical essays, book reports, and comparisons of different cultures will call for different perspectives and different writing styles. So, put simply, you’ll need to adopt the language of particular disciplines, such as world history, labor relations, art appreciation, social psychology, or organic chemistry.

      n In every case, you’ll be expected to use standard American English. In many cases you’ll be expected to properly document sources, conduct online research, and, quite often, collaborate with fellow students.



      Lesson 1 29

      n Expect to read, write, and think critically. Writing essays allows you to illustrate and apply what you’ve learned in a course, to prove your points with supporting evidence, and to defend your positions on various topics.

      n Expect to use and document scholarly sources. College- level writing requires you to support your reasons with evidence, so you’ll be required to do research, evaluate sources, and employ citation and documentation meth- ods to give credit to the sources you use in your writing.

      You’ll review all of the excellent reasons that you should per- sistently strive to improve your writing skills. That process will include developing strategies for writing. To that end, be assured that you’ll get lots of useful tips, from how to make the best use of a course syllabus to discovering the virtues of keeping a writing journal.

      Pages 24–25

      Writing skills are essential in a world that depends on digital communication for academics, social networking, and business. In school, taking notes, outlining, summarizing and annotating help you to retain information. The ability to write well will also help you succeed in your future career. Employers look for job candi- dates who have not only specialized knowledge in their disciplines, but also strong oral and written communication skills.

      Writing also helps you to think and to solve problems. By writing about issues, whether they’re personal, academic or professional, you can gain perspective and decide how to address them.

      Pages 25–30

      There are many resources available to support you in your writing course, but the most important factor is your attitude toward writing. Writing takes more time than most students expect, so if you know that before you start, you won’t get frustrated. Use your time effectively from the start by think- ing of writing as a process. The time you spend planning and drafting will pay off when it’s time to revise.



      English Composition30

      Take advantage of the resources your school provides by reading your syllabus carefully and learning about the serv- ices that are available, such as tutoring. You can find out more about the student support and online services that Penn Foster offers by reading the introduction to this study guide.

      Pages 30–39

      Discovering your learning style is a crucial part of this course. Take the “Learning Style Inventory” on pages 32–35, your text will guide you through the scoring process. You’ll discover where you stand in terms of five dichotomies:

      n Independent or Social. Do you like to work alone, or do you prefer collaborating within a group?

      n Pragmatic or Creative. Do you like to line up your ducks and follow clear rules or guidelines? Or do you prefer open-ended problems that allow you to bend the rules in interesting and innovative ways?

      n Verbal or Spatial. Do you rely in language and language skills to analyze a problem? Or do you prefer gathering information from photo images, graphs, charts, and graphic metaphors?

      n Rational or Emotional. In writing an essay, do you prefer a cool and objective weighing of facts and figures? Or do you prefer finding the right words to express your sub- jective intuitions and feelings?

      n Concrete or Abstract. In a critical essay, would you focus on observable facts and step-by-step analysis? Or are you inclined to seek out underlying assumptions to reveal the “big picture”?

      The best way to improve your singing is to sing. The best way to

      improve your writing is by writing.



      Lesson 1 31

      After you’ve got a sense of your learning style, your text will offer you some handy tips for applying your particular learn- ing style to different kinds of writing challenges.

      TIP: Figure 2.3 on page 39, “Your Strengths as a Writer,” offers you a graphic you can use to assess your learning style.

      Required Journal Entry 1: Me, A Writer? Attitude: After reading Chapters 1 and 2 in your textbook, describe

      your attitude toward completing this course. As part of the descrip-

      tion, explore how your feelings about being required to take a

      composition course may affect your performance in accomplishing

      the course objectives. (1 paragraph, 6 sentences minimum)

      Inventory: As part of this assignment, you’ll take the Learning

      Inventory quiz starting on page 32 in your textbook. Explain what

      you learned about yourself as a writer working through the inventory

      exercise. Discuss two ways you want to improve as a writer and

      why. (1 paragraph, 6 sentences minimum)

      Self-Check 2 1. Complete Exercise 2.1 on page 26.

      2. Complete Exercise 2.2 on page 29.

      There are no correct responses to these exercises. The exercises are for practice and

      personal use.



      English Composition32

      ASSIGNMENT 3: WRITING PROBLEMS AND HOW TO CORRECT THEM Read the assignment in this study guide. Then, read pages 721–779 in your textbook. Test your progress by completing the self-checks designated at various points throughout this assignment.

      Introduction Your textbook includes a complete reference handbook that covers the parts of speech, sentence construction, punctuation, and mechanics. Please note that while this lesson covers some elements of correctness in writing, your instructors expect that you’ll refer to the handbook to check rules for punctuation, dic- tion, capitalization, spelling, and other facets of writing. You’re responsible for revising, editing, and proofreading your writing, and will be graded on these elements.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 721–734

      Before you can write a clear and grammatically correct sen- tence, you must have a command of the kinds of words you’ll use for speaking and writing. In this section of your study unit, you’re going to examine eight different types of words, or parts of speech. They are nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjec- tives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections.

      n When we’re small children, nouns are generally the first words we learn. Any person, place, or thing is a noun. Nouns can be broken down into five categories: common, proper, collective, abstract, and concrete. Understanding the various types of nouns and how they’re used in sen- tences can help you become a stronger writer.



      Lesson 1 33

      n Pronouns substitute for nouns. Like nouns, pronouns can serve many purposes in a sentence. There are six types of pronouns: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, and indefinite.

      n Verbs express action; they tell what the subject of a sen- tence is doing. Depending on the action and when it’s taking place, a verb can appear in many forms, and it can be more than one word. Pay special attention to the figures that give you examples of verbs in various tenses in both singular and plural forms.

      n Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns, and they can make your speaking and writing more definite. Adjectives generally help answer a question (What kind? Which one? How many? How much?), and they can indicate color, size, or shape.

      n An adverb is generally used to modify a verb, but it can also be used to describe an adjective or other adverb. Adverbs answer other questions: How? When? Where? Why? How much? How long? To what extent? In what direction?

      n A conjunction joins words, groups of words, or sentences. There are three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating con- junctions, correlative conjunctions, and subjunctive conjunctions.

      n A preposition shows the logical relationship or placement of a noun or pronoun in relation to another word in a sentence. Many prepositions show placement, but some refer to time or a relationship between two things.

      n An interjection expresses emotion. It doesn’t relate to the other words within the sentence, but it’s used to add an emotional element. A sentence with an interjection often ends in an exclamation point.

      Pages 735–742

      The following section examines the various parts of a sen- tence, which your textbook defines as a complete thought about something or someone. Sentences can be simple, com-



      English Composition34

      plex, or compound, depending on the number of elements included. Complete sentences must include both a subject and a predicate, and can also contain other grammatical structures:

      n The part of the sentence that names the person, place, or thing about which a statement is made is the subject. There are three types of subjects: a simple subject, repre- sented by one noun or pronoun; a complete subject, made up of a noun or pronoun described by other words; and compound subjects, which are made up of two sim- ple subjects joined by a coordinating conjunction.

      n The predicate is the part of the sentence that includes one or more verbs and modifiers, and tells us what the subject does, what happens to the subject, or what is said about the subject. Predicates can be simple, com- plete, or compound.

      n Objects are the recipients of actions described by the verb or predicate. A direct object is a noun or pronoun that is directly affected by the action of a verb or reflects the result of the action. An indirect object is the person or thing to or for whom the action of the verb is done.

      n Complements are groups of words that describe either the subject or object of a sentence in a way that com- pletes the meaning of the sentence.

      n A phrase is an incomplete thought, lacking either a sub- ject, a predicate, or both. This section examines several different kinds of phrases, including prepositional phrases, verbal phrases, participial phrases, gerund phrases, infinitive phrases, appositive phrases, and absolute phrases.

      n A clause contains both a subject and a predicate, but may not always stand as a complete sentence. Independent clauses, for example, can stand alone because they express a complete thought. Dependent clauses, while they do include a subject and predicate, don’t express a complete thought.



      Lesson 1 35

      Pages 741–742

      This section of your textbook describes the four different types of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and com- pound-complex. The types of sentences differ depending on the type and variety of clauses included in the sentence.

      Self-Check 3 1. Complete Exercise 3.1 on page 746.

      2. Complete Exercise 3.2 on page 747.

      3. Complete Exercise 4.1 on page 751.

      4. Complete Exercise 4.2 on page 752.

      You can find the answers to the even-numbered parts of Exercises 3.1 and 4.1 beginning

      on page 832 in your textbook. Check other answers with those in the Answers section.



      English Composition36

      Pages 742–752

      Sentence fragments, run-on sentences, and comma splices are common sentence-structure errors in student writing. Learning to identify them will help you when you reach the revision stage and will improve your writing tremendously.

      n A sentence fragment is a group of words that can’t stand alone as a complete sentence (page 742)

      n A run-on sentence occurs when two or more independent clauses are joined without a punctuation mark or coordi- nating conjunction (page 747)

      n A comma splice occurs when a word other than a coordi- nating conjunction is used with a comma to join two or more independent clauses (page 747).

      Pages 752–757

      Parts of sentences, such as subjects and verbs, and tenses and numbers, need to match. Not only is this correct grammar, but it will help your audience stay focused on your ideas and not the errors in your writing. In the revision stage, ensure that your sentences are correct by focusing on agreement.

      n Subjects and verbs must agree in person and number. Person refers to the forms—first, second, and third— while number denotes singular or plural. In a sentence, subjects and verbs need to be consistent in person and number for your sentence to flow smoothly (page 752).

      n Use singular verbs with most collective nouns (such as family and committee) and indefinite pronouns (such as anyone and everybody) (pages 753–754).



      Lesson 1 37

      Self-Check 4 1. Complete Exercise 5.1 on page 756.

      2. Complete Exercise 5.2 on pages 756–757.

      You can find the answers to even-numbered parts of Exercise 5.1 beginning on page 832 in

      your textbook. Check other answers with those in the Answers section.

      Pages 757–760

      Be sure that you’ve used the correct verb form consistently throughout your writing. Mixing verb forms or switching tenses causes confusion for your readers.

      Self-Check 5 1. Complete Exercise 6.1 on page 759.

      2. Complete Exercise 6.2 on page 760.

      You can find the answers to even-numbered parts of Exercise 6.1 beginning on page 832 in

      your textbook. Check other answers with those in the Answers section.



      English Composition38

      Pages 760–768

      Pronouns take the place of nouns, so they need to agree with their antecedents. Make sure that each pronoun refer- ence is clear and correct in person, number, and gender (pages 760–762). It’s also important to review pronoun case (subjective, objective, and possessive) to ensure that you’ve used the correct pronoun in reference to your antecedent (pages 764–765).

      Self-Check 6 1. Complete Exercise 7.1 on page 761.

      2. Complete Exercise 7.2 on page 764.

      3. Complete Exercise 7.3 on page 767.

      4. Complete Exercise 7.4 on page 767.

      You can find the answers to even-numbered parts of Exercises 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 beginning

      on page 832 in your textbook. Check other answers with those in the Answers section.

      Pages 768–773

      To maintain a consistent, reliable voice in your writing, you need to avoid shifts in point of view, verb tense, mood, and level of diction. Maintain consistency in verb tense, keep your point of view stable, and use a consistent level of diction.



      Lesson 1 39

      Self-Check 7 1. Complete Exercise 8.1 on page 771.

      2. Complete Exercise 8.2 on page 771.

      3. Complete Exercise 8.3 on page 773.

      You can find the answers to even-numbered parts of Exercises 8.1 and 8.3 beginning on

      page 832 in your textbook. Check other answers with those in the Answers section.

      Self-Check 8 1. Complete Exercise 9.1 on page 776.

      2. Complete Exercise 9.2 on page 777.

      3. Complete Exercise 10.1 on page 779.

      4. Complete Exercise 10.2 on page 779.

      You can find the answers to the even-numbered parts of Exercises 9.1 and 10.1 beginning

      on page 832 in your textbook. Check other answers with those in the Answers section.

      Pages 773–779

      Modifiers such as adjectives and adverbs must be used cor- rectly to avoid awkwardness and confusion in writing. Misplaced modifiers inadvertently describe other elements of your sentences and change your meaning. Ensure that you use the correct modifiers in the correct form (comparative, superlative) to achieve clarity in your writing.



      English Composition40

      ASSIGNMENT 4: READING AND RESPONDING TO TEXT Read the assignment in this study guide. Then, read Chapter 3 in your textbook. Test your progress by completing the self- checks.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 40–43

      The heart of this chapter is a guide to active reading. Obviously, active is the opposite of passive. For example, you can stare blankly at an historical landmark, or you can pose questions to yourself. Who was John D. Rockefeller? Who designed this monument? When? How? Why? In college, reading accounts for a large percentage of your course work. You’ll read to learn your course content, to find out what assignments you are required to complete, and to do research.

      In college, you can expect

      n To be responsible for your own learning, so you’ll need to schedule time for reading

      n To read selections for academic audiences that will be more challenging than you’re used to

      n To read selections with different genres and different purposes, because writers write for a variety of reasons

      Required Journal Entry 2: Correctness in Writing As you complete this assignment on writing correct sentences, con-

      sider the importance of correctness in writing. How do errors in

      grammar, spelling, and punctuation affect the relationship between

      the writer and the reader of an essay? What are your strengths and

      weaknesses as a writer? (2 paragraphs, 5–7 sentences minimum for

      each question)



      Lesson 1 41

      n To read critically, and to question and challenge the information presented to you

      n To use readings a models, because they can help you improve your writing

      n To respond to readings in writing, especially in an online setting

      Pages 43–44

      As a reader, you have a lot to consider before you even begin an assignment. Active readers evaluate the title and author and think about what they know of the subject before they start. Such a critical approach to reading will help you engage with the material and give you sense of what to look for, because you’ll need to evaluate the information in front of you. Keep a pen, pencil, or highlighter handy to mark impor- tant passages and to annotate the text. Review Figure 3.1: “The Active Reading Process,” on page 44.

      Page 44–48

      Preview the text to familiarize yourself with an essay’s con- tent and organization. Check out the title and author, and read any headings or subheadings; review visuals as well. Read the introduction and conclusion to get a sense of the author’s main point. This section includes the essay “American Jerk: Be Civil, or I’ll Beat You to a Pulp,” by Todd Schwartz (pages 45–47), which is offered here as an opportu- nity to practice your previewing skills.

      Pages 48–52

      Figure out which ideas are important and which are less so by reading critically and responding to the text. Examine key elements such as thesis statement, support, and explanation. Highlight key points, but also record your thoughts and reac- tions alongside your notes. This will help you remember and form opinions about the reading. In this section, you’ll have



      English Composition42

      another opportunity to read Todd Schwartz’s essay “American Jerk: Be Civil, or I’ll Beat You to a Pulp” (pages 49–50), to practice your critical reading skills. You’ll also have an opportunity to learn how to annotate a reading assignment to identify

      n Important points

      n Places where you need further information

      n Places where the author reveals his purpose for writing

      n Passages that raise questions or that intrigue or puzzle you

      n Ideas you agree or disagree with or that challenge you

      Pages 52–60

      Don’t just close your book and walk away! Review what you read immediately after you finish. Write a brief summary to check your understanding and draw a graphic organizer or outline of the essay to identify key elements. Figure 3.2 on page 54 and Figure 3.3 on page 55 offer examples of the for- mat to use for a graphic organizer. Compare your summary and outline to your notes to see if you have sufficient infor- mation to cover the main point and supporting evidence.



      Lesson 1 43

      Self-Check 9 1. Preview “American Jerk: Be Civil, or I’ll Beat You to a Pulp” by Todd Schwartz (pages 45–47).

      n Complete Exercise 3.1, “Testing Recall after Previewing,” on page 47.

      2. Read “American Jerk: Be Civil, or I’ll Beat You to a Pulp” (pages 49–50).

      n Complete Exercise 3.2, “Practice with Annotating,” on page 51.

      3. As described on page 51 of your textbook, annotate and highlight or underline the essay as

      you read to identify

      n Important points

      n Places where you need further information

      n Places where the author reveals his purpose for writing

      n Passages that raise questions or that intrigue or puzzle you

      n Ideas you agree or disagree with or that challenge you

      4. Review “American Jerk: Be Civil, or I’ll Beat You to a Pulp” and complete the “Reading

      Response Worksheet” on page 59. Use your annotations, notes, and questions to help.

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.

      Pages 60–72

      Writing about what you read will help you retain knowledge and develop a deeper understanding of the issues presented in a text. When you respond to a text, you’ll synthesize the author’s ideas with your own by

      n Looking for useful information that you could apply or relate to other real-life situations

      n Thinking beyond the reading and recalling other material you have read or events you have experienced that relate

      n Using the key-word response method to generate ideas based on your initial reaction to the reading



      English Composition44

      ASSIGNMENT 5: THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT TEXT AND VISUALS Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 4 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 74–88

      To succeed not only in college, but also in your career, you need to develop the skills necessary to read and think criti- cally about texts, both written and visual. It’s important to understand what an author means, as well as what he or she writes, to determine if there’s more going on in a text than meets the eye. You need to make inferences, or reasonable

      Self-Check 10 Read Will Oremus’s article “Superhero or Supervillain? If Science Gives People

      Superpowers, Will They Use Them for Good or Evil?” on pages 65–68.

      1. Complete “After Reading” on page 68.

      2. Complete “Responding to the Reading” on page 68.

      Read Karen Vaccaro’s “‘American Jerk’ How Rude! (but True)” on pages 70–72.

      3. Complete “Analyzing the Writer’s Technique” on page 72.

      4. Complete “Responding to the Reading” on page 72.

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.



      Lesson 1 45

      guesses based on the available facts and information, to draw logical connections between what the writer states and what he or she implies. You’ll need to look closely at the available evidence or note that there’s no evidence to support either the author’s points or your own inferences. Decide what that means for the information he or she is attempting to convey. You’ll need to distinguish facts from opinions to determine if you can rely upon the author, and you’ll need to analyze his or her language to ensure that you aren’t being manipulated by the clever use of connotations, figurative language, euphemisms, and doublespeak. Finally, consider the general- izations and assumptions the author makes: is there any reason at all to doubt the author’s claims? If you have doubts, you’ll want to check other more reliable sources.

      Page 88–95

      This section offers you some helpful tips on making sense of visuals, such as photographs or computer-generated images, as well as charts and graphs designed to illustrate relation- ships among observable datasets. For most readers, interpreting visuals poses two basic challenges. First, you may get stuck on a particularly engaging image; you can get distracted from the flow of the written text. Second, you may simply tend to skip over or ignore the image. Instead, you should stop, look, and reflect on the image consciously. Then, as you study the image, reflect on its message and how it relates to the text. Always assume that the image is there to enhance the author’s narrative. Table 4.2 on page 89 of your textbook provides some helpful guidelines for analyzing photographs.

      When it comes to graphics such as charts, graphs, or com- plex tables and figures, readers may be inclined to scan the graphic without analyzing it. That’s not a good idea. A better idea can be illustrated by how you should read text material related to mathematics. When you get to an equation, stop. Study it until you actually understand what it means. Apply that same principle to tables, charts, and graphs. Table 4.3 on page 91 of your textbook offers a handy reference for understanding common types of graphics, while Table 4.4 on page 92 provides useful guidelines for analyzing graphics.



      English Composition46

      NOTE: Before moving on to Lesson 2, please complete the examination for Lesson 1. Journal entries 1 and 2 should now be complete.

      Self-Check 11 1. Complete Exercise 4.1 on page 76. Respond to the three questions aimed at making reason-

      able inferences about the author’s opinion and attitude, and about details that are particularly

      revealing about Americans’ behavior.

      2. Complete Exercise 4.2 on page 77.

      3. Complete Exercise 4.3 on page 78.

      4. Complete Exercise 4.4 on page 78.

      5. Complete Exercise 4.5 on page 79.

      6. Complete Exercise 4.8 on pages 81–82.

      7. Complete Exercise 4.10 on page 83.

      8. Complete Exercise 4.12 on page 84.

      9. Complete Exercise 4.13 on page 85.

      10. Complete Exercise 4.15 on pages 87–88 by rereading “Superhero or Supervillain? If Science

      Gives People Superpowers, Will They Use Them for Good or Evil?” (Chapter 3, pages 65–68)

      and responding to each of the nine questions.

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.



      Lesson 2: The Reading and Writing Process

      INTRODUCTION If you don’t particularly enjoy writing, you may ask yourself why you should make the effort to improve your skills. The simple answer is that you can’t avoid writing—as a student or an employee, there will always be writing requirements. Learning to write well will give you tools for success no mat- ter what career you choose. That’s because logical thinking and effective communication are necessary for advancement, whether you’re an accountant, nurse, or newspaper reporter. The better your skills, the more choices you have and the better your chances are for achievement and satisfaction.

      OBJECTIVES When you complete this lesson, you’ll be able to

      n Apply narrowing strategies to focus your writing

      n Develop effective thesis statements

      n Support your thesis with appropriate evidence

      n Use methods of organization in writing, including topic sentences

      ASSIGNMENT 6: PREWRITING: HOW TO FIND AND FOCUS IDEAS Read the assignment in this study guide. Then, read Chapter 5 in your textbook. The webinar titled “The Writing Process” supports this assignment. Review the English Composition course information for webinar instructions, and then check the webinar schedule on your student portal to register for a session. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.


      L e

      s s

      o n

      2 L

      e s

      s o

      n 2



      English Composition48

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 99–103

      When presented with the challenge of writing an essay, assuming the topic hasn’t been established by your instructor, choosing a topic often seems like a formidable obstruction. The author of your text understands this very well and offers handy tips. First, devote serious time to choosing your topic. Thinking should coincide with prewriting. Second, search out ideas and questions as a path to discovering a topic that interests you. For example, why do kids drop out of school? Are human beings predisposed to violence? Why was Galileo punished by the powers that be for revealing evidence that the Earth isn’t at the center of the solar system?

      Tip: Figure 5.1 on page 100 offers an excellent graphic overview of the writing process. You’ll want to study it carefully and use it to refresh your memory.

      Meanwhile, narrowing your topic is vital. For example, regarding the effects of television exposure on young children, you’ll find lots of approaches. So you might decide to narrow your topic by asking specific questions: How is time watching TV related to obesity? Is time watching TV related to aca- demic performance? Does TV content depict violence as a normal way to handle disputes?

      Pages 103–107

      You must determine the purpose of your essay, article, op-ed, or bulletin. Do you want to persuade or simply inform your readers? Do you want to argue for or against a public policy? Do you want to disclose an interesting incident in the history of the Civil War?

      If you’re going to be a writer, the first essential is just to write. Do

      not wait for an idea. Start writing something and the ideas will come.

      You have to turn the faucet on before the water starts to flow.

      —Louis L’Amour



      Lesson 2 49

      In any case, if you haven’t considered your audience, you can’t expect to get your message across. To help you deal with that vital concern, you text offers you a list of salient questions. For example, what does your audience know (or not know) about your topic? What’s the general education or likely background of your audience? An article on unions will take a different slant if it’s directed to members of a trade union as opposed to anti-union lobbyists. What opinions, biases, or political sentiments are likely to be embraced by your readers?

      If you don’t have a point of view on a given topic, you’re not likely to communicate effectively with your presumed audi- ences. Indeed, even in deciding whether to write in first person as opposed to third person, you’re choosing a point of view.

      Pages 107–117

      This section offers a number of ways to discover ideas, the collection of which will allow you to form the first draft of your paper. The following is a list of the techniques listed and a brief description of each.

      Freewriting. At this point, you’ve probably grasped the idea of freewriting. Basically, you write whatever comes to mind for 5 to 10 minutes. As you do this, you don’t need to pay attention to punctuation, spelling, and grammar. After com- pleting a freewriting session, review it to underline or comment on ideas that may be useful.

      Mapping. Mapping, also called clustering, is a visual tech- nique for discovering ideas and how they’re related. Think about a police detective drawing circles, boxes, and arrows on a whiteboard, trying to link possible suspects to locations or other suspects.

      The best way to get the sense of this process is by devoting some time to studying Figure 5.2 on page 110.

      Brainstorming. Brainstorming is different from freewriting in that you write down any or all of the ideas that pop into your head while focused on a specific topic. Brainstorming may also involve a small group as opposed to a single individual. Quite often, you’ll find that your ideas fall into clusters. For



      English Composition50

      example, let’s say you wrote down 12 possible disadvantages of the war on drugs. You might find clusters related to three narrowed topics: 1) the social and economic costs of massive imprisonment of offenders, 2) the social and monetary costs of deflecting law enforcement away from stopping organized and white collar crime, and 3) the impacts on children and families of those most often caught up in the drug war.

      Questioning. Questioning is a process of raising and writing down all the questions one or two individuals may pose related to some topic, such as charter schools or communal vegetable gardening. Prefacing questions with “what if” can be helpful. In any case, the idea is to pose questions that lead to a narrowed topic.

      Writing assertions. Writing assertions amounts to viewing a general topic from as many perspectives as possible. Abstract learning types may benefit from this approach because it helps a writer divide a “big picture” frame of reference into limited, manageable topics.

      Patterns of development. There are nine approaches to developing an essay: narration, description, illustration, process analysis, comparison and contrast, classification and division, definition, cause and effect, and argument. Each of these can be called a pattern of development. Table 5.2 on page 115, gives you a snapshot look at the kinds of questions you might ask while seeking to narrow a topic under specific patterns of development.

      Visualizing or sketching. Imagine that you want to write a descriptive essay on the architecture of the Pantheon in Rome. To be sure, you’ll be adding in historical context, but you might benefit greatly from making rough sketches of interior and exterior views of this famous building. In another related approach, say about your descriptive observations of a county fair, you might close your eyes and visualize your impressions of people you saw, kids on a merry-go-round, pie contests, and so on.



      Lesson 2 51

      Research. It’s typically a good idea to do research. In the age of the Internet and Google, that process can be greatly accelerated. Note that any research needs to be cited and documented according to accepted formats such as MLA or APA. However, it’s also a good idea to conduct some research in the old-fashioned way—in public or college libraries. You may be amazed at how helpful librarians can be. Also, keep in mind that direct fieldwork can be vital to a good essay. If you want to understand the behavior of elementary school kids on playgrounds, you’ll be wise to visit playgrounds and observe children’s actual behavior.

      The final two pages of the chapter will explain that, over the following five chapters of your text, the “Students Write” material will follow the work of Latrisha Wilson, a first-year writing student.



      English Composition52

      Self-Check 12 1. Complete Exercise 5.1 on page 102.

      2. Complete Exercise 5.2 on page 103.

      3. Complete Exercise 5.4 on page 106.

      4. Complete Exercise 5.5 on page 109. Set a timer to keep track of your time.

      5. Turn to Exercise 5.7 on page 111. Select the first topic, “Value of Music.” Then, brainstorm to

      generate ideas about how write about your topic.

      6. For Exercise 5.10 on page 114, chose one of the five topics. Then, use the patterns of devel-

      opment—narration, illustration, definition, and so on—to generate ideas about how to write

      about the topic. Consult Table 5.2 on page 115 to form questions based on each pattern.

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.



      Lesson 2 53

      ASSIGNMENT 7: DEVELOPING AND SUPPORTING A THESIS Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 6 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Introduction A thesis statement is the main point of an essay. It tells the reader what the essay is about and what the author’s posi- tion is on the chosen topic.

      Study Figure 6.1, “An Overview of the Writing Process,” on page 120. Think about the six steps:

      n Prewriting

      n Developing your thesis statement

      n Supporting your thesis statement with evidence

      n Drafting

      n Revising

      n Editing and proofing

      Refer back to this list if you forget this sequence.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 119–124

      A guide to writing an effective thesis statement is found on pages 122–124. Here’s a preview:

      n Make an assertion. An assertion takes a position, expresses a viewpoint, and often suggests your approach to the topic. For example, “The state college class regis- tration procedures should be redesigned and simplified.”

      n Be specific. That means providing as much specific infor- mation as you can. For example, “Growing up on the south side of Chicago gave me firsthand experience of the challenges faced by inner city youth.”



      English Composition54

      n Focus on a central point. For example, “Job training pro- grams for single mothers are pointless if the few available jobs don’t provide a living wage.”

      n Offer an original perspective on your topic. Your thesis should be designed to get your reader’s attention. To do that, you should try to provide your readers with an interesting angle or point of view on your topic. Often, you can search your prewriting to come up with a unique, engaging angle.

      n Avoid making an announcement. Many college essays fal- ter at the outset with opening sentences like, “The subject of my essay is the minimum wage.” An alterna- tive opening statement might look like this: “Raising the minimum wage may seem like a good idea, but, in fact, a higher minimum wage will reduce the number of avail- able jobs.”

      n Use the thesis to preview the organization of your essay. For example, you can mention two or three key concepts or ideas that will focus your essay. Your thesis statement should appear in your opening paragraph as part of your introduction.

      Pages 125–131

      Without evidence to support your thesis, your efforts will be reduced to hazy clouds of unsupported surmise and baseless opinion. No evidence means no substance. To provide sub- stance, you can use typical forms of evidence including examples, explanation of a process, advantages and disad- vantages, comparison and contrast, historical background, definitions, and explanation of causes and their effects, among others.

      Study Table 6.1 on page 126, which shows you the types of evidence that can be used to support a specific working the- sis: Namely, “Acupuncture, a form of alternative medicine, is becoming more widely accepted in the United States.” Figure 6.2, “A Worksheet for Collecting Evidence,” on page 129 deserves your undivided attention. When working on a thesis statement, you can use this sort of worksheet to think about and organize evidence for your thesis.



      Lesson 2 55

      As you consider this section of your text, you may want to understand that the word evidence means different things in different contexts. In the context of law, acceptable evidence offered in a jury trial must conform strictly to statutes and legal precedents. Evidence is considered circumstantial or hearsay if it’s not supported by empirical facts. In the domains of science, evidence that supports a hypothesis must be confirmable by other researchers who can repeat a study or experiment under the same conditions. Even Einstein’s theory of relativity wasn’t confirmed until it was shown to be consistent with empirical studies. By contrast, a college essay may indeed rely, at least in part, on eyewitness reports, personal narratives, supported definitions, and arguments that may have more than one side. In short, techniques of persua- sion and appeals to emotion aren’t necessarily out of bounds.

      Pages 131–137

      Your challenge in this section is reading and analyzing an essay by Greg Beato titled “Internet Addiction.” You’ll note that the author addresses his fairly amusing piece from a lib- ertarian perspective. Libertarians believe that people’s personal rights to do what they wish with their private prop- erty shouldn’t be abridged, as long as there’s no infringement on other people’s private property rights. See if you can detect that philosophy in this essay. Meanwhile, given that you or someone you know may be “addicted” to virtual gam- ing or, at least, often distracted by way of Internet surfing, you may find it interesting to assert your own opinion of the author’s thesis. Do you think there is, in fact, a behavioral profile related to electronic media that should be classified as “addictive” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fre- quented by mental health experts?



      English Composition56

      Self-Check 13 1. Complete Exercise 6.1 on page 122.

      2. Complete Exercise 6.2 on page 122.

      3. Complete Exercise 6.3 on page 123.

      4. Complete Exercise 6.4 on page 124.

      5. Complete Exercise 6.5 on page 125.

      6. Having read (or reread) the essay by Greg Beato, “Internet Addiction,” turn to page 134 and

      respond to all four of the items under “Examining the Reading.”

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.

      Required Journal Entry 3: Prewriting and Thesis Statement Brainstorm: Review the description of brainstorming in your textbook

      (111), then write a list of at least 6-10 social media and social net-

      working websites and apps that you might use to connect with friends

      and family and to meet people.

      Respond: Group the sites and apps you listed according to their

      similarities. Explain your reasoning for each group. (1 paragraph, 5


      Write a thesis statement: Review “Writing Assertions” on pages

      122–124, then follow the guidelines on pages 126–127 in your textbook

      to write an effective thesis statement based on one of the topics you

      listed here.

      Reflect: A thesis statement should state your topic and make a debat-

      able claim. Explain the claim you’ve made in your thesis and identify

      the items from your brainstorming list or categories that you believe will

      best support your position. (1 paragraph, 5 sentences)



      Lesson 2 57

      ASSIGNMENT 8: DRAFTING AN ESSAY Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 7 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 138–140

      It’s not a bad idea to store the basic structure of an essay in your memory. Your mental notes could look a bit like this:

      n Title—Reveal your topic in a way that sparks your read- ers’ interest.

      n Introduction—Paragraph 1 (or maybe both Paragraphs 1 and 2) introduces your narrowed topic, presents your thesis, provides background, and tries to engage your readers’ interest.

      n Body—The body is three or more paragraphs that sup- port and explain your thesis using evidence.

      n Conclusion—You emphasize your thesis without simply repeating it. That is, you want to end with a flourish that amplifies your thesis. Draw your essay to a close.

      On page 139, Figure 7.1 reviews the writing process. On the next page, Figure 7.2 graphically illustrates the structure of an essay, including its parts and functions. This is a useful reference when you review an assigned essay.

      Pages 140–146

      The basic structure of a well-written essay already has three parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. But you’ll have to make decisions about how organize supporting details in the body of your essay.

      In some cases, such as when you’re writing an argument, you may want to follow either the “most-to-least” principle or the “least-to-most” principle. So, if you have three main pieces of supporting evidence, you can rank that evidence in



      English Composition58

      the order of its importance—1, 2, and 3. On the other hand, if you want to end your essay with a bang, you might organ- ize your evidence so as to save the best for last—3, 2, and 1.

      When your essay is a narrative, you’re likely to organize your paragraphs in chronological order; first A happened, then B, then C, and so on. However, in a descriptive essay, for exam- ple, you might want to use a spatial order. Imagine you’re writing an essay about the many wondrous features of the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C. Different “body spaces” can be appointed to describe the Air and Space Museum, the Natural History Museum, and the American Historical Museum.

      An outline or graphic organizer offers you a way to organize your evidence after you’ve selected an organizing principle. An informal outline or scratch outline is based on key words and phrases that give you a shorthand summary of each of your essay’s paragraphs.

      The following two paragraphs show an informal outline:

      Paragraph 1: I learn about the ghost of McBride mansion. I get permission to spend the night in the mansion.

      Paragraph 2: Night falls and the house creaks. Whispering in the upstairs bedroom. The piano begins to play.

      A formal outline is organized like this:

      I. First Main Topic

      A. First subtopic

      B. Second subtopic

      a. First detail

      b. Second detail

      Once an outline has been completed you can proceed to cre- ate a graphic organizer.

      Figure 7.3 on page 147 provides you with a “Sample Graphic Organizer.” In any case, keep in mind that outlining and con- structing a graphic organizer isn’t simply tedious busy work. The work you do in organizing your essay serves two key pur- poses: it helps you eliminate irrelevant material and stay on topic, and it helps you generate new ideas you may not have thought of otherwise.



      Lesson 2 59

      Pages 146–154

      This section includes helpful tips for writing a strong intro- duction, an effective conclusion, and a strong title. These are excellent tips that you should consult as you tackle the essay assignments in this course.

      On pages 152–154 is the first draft of an essay by Latrisha Wilson titled “No Place Left for Privacy.” She prepared the draft based on her freewriting (covered in Chapter 5) and her established working thesis (covered in Chapter 6).

      Pages 154–156

      The concluding section of this chapter focuses on an essay by Brent Staples called “Black Men and Public Space.” This essay may be emotionally challenging to read, but whatever your cultural or racial perspective, you’ll recognize the power of a well-written narrative.

      In working with the text, you’ll be expected to underline the author’s thesis, examine the reading to determine things like his reference to “the ability to alter public space,” analyze the writer’s technique, think critically about the reading, visual- ize the reading, and, finally, react to the reading.



      English Composition60

      Required Journal Entry 4: Organizing and Drafting Organize/Outline: Using your thesis statement and evidence from

      Journal Entry 3, select a method of organization from your textbook

      on pages 140–143. Choose one of the graphic organizers or formal

      outlines to organize your evidence so that it supports the position

      you take in your thesis statement in the most effective way possible.

      Include your outline in your journal.

      Reflect: Explain why you chose this particular method of organization

      over the other possibilities. Why do you believe it’s the most effective

      way to present your topic to your audience? (Minimum 1 paragraph,

      6 sentences)

      Self-Check 14 1. Complete Exercise 7.1 on page 142.

      2. Complete Exercise 7.2 on page 143.

      3. Complete Exercise 7.4 on page 152.

      4. Having read or reread the essay by Brent Staples, turn to page 154. On page 156 under

      “Examining the Reading,” respond to all four items.

      5. Choose the better introduction from each pair given. The introduction should engage the

      reader’s attention and clearly state a thesis for an essay of three to five pages.

      1. a. In the eighteenth century, an English clockmaker named John Harrison received a prize

      for a clever invention that allowed sailors to calculate longitude. He created a clock that

      required no pendulum and contained different kinds of metal. This clock worked onboard

      a ship at sea, and it worked in many different temperatures and climates.




      Lesson 2 61

      Self-Check 14 b. Until the eighteenth century, ships at sea had no way of calculating longitude with any

      accuracy. As a result, countless sailors died when their ships lost track of their position

      in the ocean and ran aground or failed to find their way home. Great scientific minds

      tried to solve the problem of longitude without success, but a self-taught English clock-

      maker, John Harrison, invented a device that worked. Harrison’s invention must rank as

      one of the greatest contributions to the field of navigation.

      2. a. A summer job at a burger joint taught me lessons I might not otherwise have learned

      for years. I discovered that many people treat workers in menial jobs with contempt,

      and I learned how miserable it feels to be treated that way. Working with people I had

      always despised in high school taught me that I had judged others too quickly. Finally, I

      learned to question bad decisions made by my supervisors—even though I ended up

      unemployed as a result. Though burger flipping paid only minimum wage, the job

      taught me invaluable lessons about life.

      b. After school let out for the summer in early June, I went straight to a local fast-food

      restaurant and filled out an application. The manager called a few days later and asked

      me to come in for an interview. Although one of my friends told me the work there was

      hot and boring and the pay was poor, I took the position anyway when the manager

      offered it to me. I didn’t like the job much in the beginning, but by the end of the sum-

      mer I was glad to have had the experience.

      3. a. The reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park restores an important miss-

      ing piece from that ecosystem. Wolves, hunted to extinction in Wyoming and Montana in

      the twentieth century, occupy a vital place in the natural cycle of the area. As predators,

      wolves control the population of deer and other herbivores, which reproduce prolifically.

      Returning wolves to the place where they once belonged will eventually reestablish the

      natural balance in this wild, beautiful part of the United States.

      b. Because every part of an ecosystem affects every other part, disturbing the natural

      cycle can have devastating effects. In almost every type of environment, a variety of

      plants feed a variety of small herbivores, which in turn feed a variety of predators.

      Wolves are a good example of predators that should not be disturbed.

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.



      English Composition62

      ASSIGNMENT 9: WRITING EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 8 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Introduction A sentence is to a paragraph as a cell is to an organism. Or put another way, a paragraph is a set of interrelated sentences that develop an idea or topic. In terms of essay writing, you should assume that each of your paragraphs will develop your reader’s understanding of what you have to say about a specific idea. In short, one unfolded idea equals one paragraph. If you find any sentence that’s drifting away from or not relevant to a paragraph’s anchoring idea, that sentence needs to find another home or simply be deleted from your essay.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 159–168

      This section introduces the structure of a paragraph and the vital importance of topic sentences. A properly crafted para- graph will include a finely focused topic sentence; specific supporting details, such as examples, evidence, or explana- tion; and well-placed transitions and repetitions that weave your sentences into a coherent, engaging, unified thought. A topic sentence is to a paragraph as a thesis is to an essay.

      Tip: Study Figure 8.1 on page 161 to get an overview of a properly crafted paragraph.

      There are four basic guidelines for writing a topic sentence:

      n Focus. A topic sentence should focus a reader’s attention on a topic. It should illuminate what the paragraph is about. For example, this topic sentence is unfocused: “Marijuana has medical applications.” This topic



      Lesson 2 63

      sentence is focused: “Marijuana has been used to treat patients suffering from glaucoma and also to reduce the suffering of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.”

      n Previewing. A topic sentence may be used to preview the organization of a paragraph. For example, a topic sen- tence might read, “Marijuana’s medical uses include treatment for glaucoma, the alleviation of symptoms for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and easing the mental anguish of people suffering from posttrau- matic stress disorders.” In this example, the paragraph’s subtopics are presented in the order in which they’ll be addressed in the paragraph, using evidence or examples to illustrate the each point.

      n Support your thesis. In a well-written screenplay or short story, every sentence moves the plot forward. In much the same way, your topic sentences should support your thesis as you move from your introduction to your conclusion.

      n Strategic placement. Most often, a topic sentence is the first sentence of a paragraph. That makes sense because you often want to lead a paragraph with a key to your para- graph’s topic. On the other hand, good writing is a creative process. Slavish attention to typical usages can lead to flat and uninspired writing. Sometimes, placing a topic sen- tence just after your lead sentence can better serve as the key to you your paragraph. In other cases, a paragraph can lead up to a final, concluding topic sentence.

      Through numerous examples and exercises, several pages in this section will help you better understand how supporting details can be woven together to create well-developed, uni- fied paragraphs. The best way to get the most from this section is spending time studying the examples.

      In this context, you’ll learn that well-developed paragraphs often depend on what writers call concreteness. Compare these two passages. Which one best engages your imagination?

      Passage 1: Entering the shop, I was fascinated by the mer- chandise. Then I noticed the tall woman behind the counter looking at me in a strange way.



      English Composition64

      Passage 2: Entering the shop, I looked around, wide-eyed at the wild variety of merchandise. Between an antique Victorian clock and what looked like a statue of Isis was an African tribal mask that seemed to glare at me. Tapestries with strange designs covering the walls and the faint odor of incense made me feel like I’d been transported to a different time and place. And then I noticed the tall woman behind the counter. Raven-colored hair spilled over her shoulders. A faint smile shadowed her scarlet lips even as her dark, luminous eyes seemed to look through me.

      Passage 2 is furnished with descriptive detail. The details, in turn, illustrate the concreteness of images that engage the imagination by way of the senses.

      Pages 169–170

      This section offers two important suggestions to help you connect ideas in an essay:

      n To write a readable and engaging essay, provide transi- tional words or phrases to create smooth transitions between paragraphs.

      n Remember to repeat key words or their synonyms to keep your reader on topic.

      The excerpts on page 170 illustrate both of these ideas. See if you can locate the transitional words or phrases and instances of using key terms in different (but synonymous) language.

      Tip: Study Table 8.1 on page 169. It shows you how different kinds of transitions may be used in the context of logical, spatial, and time connections.

      Note: The reading on pages 170–171, offers a continued look at the work of Latrisha Wilson, here featuring her first draft paragraph (on her thesis about privacy) and a revision of the paragraph.



      Lesson 2 65

      Note: Before moving on to Lesson 3, please complete the examination for Lesson 2. Journal entries 3 and 4 should now be complete.

      Self-Check 15 1. Complete Exercise 8.1 on page 162.

      2. Complete Exercise 8.2 on page 163.

      3. Complete Exercise 8.4 on page 166.

      4. Complete Exercise 8.5 on page 167.

      Although it’s convenient, online shopping is a different experience than shopping in an

      actual store. You don’t get the same opportunity to see and feel objects. Also, you can

      miss out on other important information. There’s much that you miss. If you enjoy shop-

      ping, turn off your computer and support your local merchants.

      5. Complete Exercise 8.7 on page 171.

      Check your answers with those in the Answers section.



      English Composition66




      Lesson 3: Revising and Editing

      INTRODUCTION If you were a master carpenter, you would never show up for a job without your tools; similarly, as a writer, you should never undertake revision work without the tools you’ll find in this lesson. The job of revision is to make your written inter- pretation of an idea, an image, or a scene easier for your reader to understand and more pleasant to read.

      One key to revision involves combining patience, persistence, and objectivity. While patience is a virtue in every aspect of life, in writing it’s especially important because a first effort in drafting a report, a poem, or an essay is extremely unlikely to be a final draft.

      It takes time and practice to be able to see where improve- ment is needed in your own work. (The American poet Walt Whitman revised and expanded his Leaves of Grass through- out his entire lifetime!) It’s best to schedule time over the course of a week—or several weeks for a lengthy essay or research project—so you can let each revision rest for at least a day or two before you reread it and make corrections. The resting phase allows you to read your work with fresh eyes— as your reader will—and get to the root of revision, which is presenting your ideas clearly.

      Persistence is an extension of patience. You may be tempted to think that a few quick changes will turn your initial draft into polished prose, but unless you’re a professional editor, you’re unlikely to catch every error and organizational prob- lem the first time around (and even professional editors use proofreaders). To make your presentation better, stronger, and clearer, plan ahead and allow time for persistence.


      L e

      s s

      o n

      3 L

      e s

      s o

      n 3

      Mario Puzo, author of The Godfather, said, “Writing is rewriting.”



      English Composition68

      Finally, the art of revision demands objectivity. Looking at your own views with an impartial eye may be the hardest part of revision. After letting your first draft rest, read your work as though the ideas came from someone else. Look for clear organ- ization, well-developed paragraphs, and specific examples to support your thesis. Make sure each detail is relevant to both the topic of the paragraph and your thesis.You’ll learn the value of patience, persistence, and objectivity as you work through several versions of your paper and see what a difference your revisions make.

      OBJECTIVES When you complete this lesson, you’ll be able to

      n Explain why revising content and organization is impor- tant to the writing process

      n Apply appropriate techniques of revision and organiza- tion to your writing

      n Apply the rules of standard written American English for punctuation and spelling

      ASSIGNMENT 10: REVISING CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION Read the following assignment in your study guide. Then, read Chapter 9 in your textbook. Be sure to complete the self-check before moving on to the next assignment.

      Reading Highlights

      Pages 174–176

      Read through the “Writing Quick Start” exercise and study the photo. In your notebook, list everything you see from left to right. The point of your list is to seek ways to make the picture more understandable. Then, look again to revise your perception. Add details interpreting that information. Consider questions like these: What’s going on? Who’s



      Lesson 3 69

      coming home? What’s the predominant gender of the people in the picture and why? If you were entertaining a visitor from Europe, how would you explain this photo? Finally, write a paragraph describing and interpreting a main idea about the photograph. The sentences you write should sum- marize the content of the image in ways that can help people see things they wouldn’t see on their own. A picture may be worth a thousand words, but sometimes words can make a picture more interesting and more revealing.

      As you work through the chapter, pause after each section to apply the suggested techniques and strategies toward analyz- ing and revising your paragraph.

      As you probably already know, revising is a part of the process most student writers dread (and often skip, con- demning themselves to submitting unclear, unfocused writing). Revising should account for at least 50 percent of the process, because up to this point, you’ve been exploring your ideas and the relationships among them. Your draft is merely a tentative step to pull everything together, to make sense of it all, and to find your way. Revising requires you to step back and examine your work as if you were the target audience, seeing the writing for the first time. It involves looking at the big picture—the whole forest rather than indi- vidual trees, branches, or leaves.

      Any time you revise, try to make changes on a printed or handwritten copy of your writing. If, however, you have to work solely on the computer, be sure that when you open your draft—before you start revising—do a “Save as” and rename the document with a title like “Revision 1” in case you delete something you later decide you need.


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